I wanted to offer some update on the assorted treatments the are showing promising outcomes.

You are watching: Dr stephen smith infectious disease expert

With hundreds of ongoing initiatives, it’s near difficult to be aware of lock all. The ones ns outline below I’ve categorized right into anti-viral medicines and also antibodies.

Anti-viral: an agent the kills a virus or the suppresses its capability to replicate, therefore inhibiting its capacity to multiply and reproduce. Some anti-viral medications deserve to be taken in a preventative manner, yet doing this too early may prohibit the immune device from producing the antibodies necessary to fight the infection when the treatment is complete, thereby allowing the person to capture the virus again in the future.

Hydroxychloroquine: The FDA just emergency authorized hydroxychloroquine for off label use in hospitals to treat COVID-19. Countless studies are mirroring remarkable results on making use of this antimalarial medicine to combat the virus. Authorized for clinical use in the United states in 1955, hydroxychloroquine is on the people Health Organization’s list of vital Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a wellness system.

Hydrochloride was rated the most reliable treatment in a survey of 6,227 medical professionals treating COVID-19 in 30 nations worldwide. The inspection was conducted March 25-28 the this year.

Two French studies proved incredible results using hydroxychloroquine, particularly when merged with azithromycin (antibiotic) and also zinc.


Family medicine physician Dr. Zev Zelenko released his results treating 500 patients in brand-new York through the complying with outpatient regimen:

1. Hydroxychloroquine 200mg twice a day because that 5 days

2. Azithromycin 500mg when a day for 5 days

3. Zinc sulfate 220mg as soon as a day because that 5 days

This was the therapy protocol in the pre-hospital setting:

1. Any patient v shortness that breath nevertheless of period was treated.

2. Any patient in the high-risk category even with simply mild symptoms was treated.

3. Young, healthy and also low threat patients even with symptoms were not treated (unless their circumstances adjusted and they fell into group 1 or 2).

The record is worth a read. A few quotes space below:

“I merged the data available from China and South Korea through the recent study released from France. We recognize that hydroxychloroquine help Zinc go into the cell. We know that Zinc slows viral replication in ~ the cell. Regarding the use of azithromycin, ns postulate that prevents an additional bacterial infections. These 3 drugs are well known and also usually fine tolerated, hence the risk to the patient is low.”

Basically…he used common sense.

“The results are staggering: we have had actually ZERO deaths, ZERO hospitalizations, and ZERO intubations. In addition, I have not heard the any negative side results other than about 10% of patient with temporary nausea and diarrhea.”

Infectious condition Specialist Dr. Stephen Smith said the data is unequivocal the the hydroxychloroquine protocol is a video game changer. Dr. Smith has been dealing with coronavirus patient at the Smith center for contagious Diseases and Urban health and wellness in eastern Orange, new Jersey.

Dr. Stephen Smith proclaimed that not a solitary coronavirus patience under his care who was on the hydroxychloroquine regimen needed to it is in intubated. “No person who has actually received five days or an ext of the hydroxychloroquine azithro combination has been intubated. The opportunity of that developing by possibility … space .000 something. It’s ridiculously low. It’s ridiculously low yet you look in ~ it. We were looking at an option bias in this situation. Yet I can not think of a reason why. If all else is same why human being that got 5 work or much more or even four days or more of this hydroxychloroquine-azithro regimen wouldn’t get intubated… It’s a game-changer. An absolute game-changer. Ns think this data goes to really support the French data…I think this is the beginning of the finish of the pandemic.”

He has stated he believes it demands to be offered to people earlier to prevent hospitalizations and also ICU patient in the an initial place.

If patients carry out not need to be intubated, the would get rid of the massive need and shortage that respirators.

Dr. Anthony Cardillo, CEO of Mend immediate Care, to trust the key to hydroxychloroquine performance is to take it v zinc. The made the complying with remarks during an interview through ABC 7 news anchor Jory Rand.

“What we’re finding clinically with our patients is that it really just works in conjunction v zinc. So the hydroxychloroquine opens up the zinc channel, zinc goes right into the cell, it then blocks the replication of the moving machinery,” Cardillo said. “So, it needs to be provided in conjunction through zinc.”

“Every patient I’ve prescribed it to has actually been very, really ill and within 8-12 hrs they were basically symptom cost-free and so, clinically i am seeing a resolution that mirrors what we witnessed in the French study and some of the other studies worldwide,”

The world that to speak hydroxychloroquine is not proven to work are looking for a timeless double-blind study. The an excellent news is that such a examine coming. The university of Pennsylvania has actually a new trial come evaluate even if it is the medicine hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) can advantage people infected with COVID-19, and whether acquisition the medicine preventatively may assist people protect against infection altogether. The study, dubbed Prevention and also Treatment of COVID-19 through HCQ (PATCH), is currently enrolling patient in three different sub-studies (NCT04329923).

So, at some point after this outbreak is over, us should have actually a examine proving if this treatment works.

Chloroquine: The FDA just emergency approved chloroquine for turn off label use in hospitals to treat COVID-19. Chinese medical officials have approved the drug to law pneumonia brought about by COVID-19.

A usual antimalarial drug, chloroquine is additionally used because that rheumatoid arthritis, amebiasis, and lupus erythematosus. Uncovered in 1934 through Hans Andersag, that is has seen widespread use due to the fact that 1945. Choose hydroxychloroquine, the is top top the human being Health Organization’s perform of important Medicines. That is available as a generic medication. The wholesale cost in the occurring world is about US $0.04. In the unified States, that costs about US $5.30 per dose (an infuriating price distinction that merits a series of blog at a future time).

Recent guidelines from south Korea and also China report that chloroquine is an reliable antiviral therapeutic treatment versus COVID-19. Usage of chloroquine tablet computers is showing favorable outcomes in humans infected with coronavirus, including quicker recovery times and shorter hospital stays. United state Centers for disease Control and Prevention (CDC) research mirrors that chloroquine also has solid potential together a prophylactic preventative measure versus coronavirus in the lab. 

Basically, both antimalarial drugs work-related in similar ways with similar results.

Favilavir: regulatory officials in China announced in mid-February the they had actually approved the antiviral favilavir for usage in the therapy of the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The approval through the National medical Products management was based on the drug’s efficacy against the virus in clinical trials began in solution to the continuous outbreak.

The drug was experiment in 70 patient with evidenced COVID-19 epidemic in the city that Shenzhen. Particular results of the clinical trial entailing favilavir, previously known together fapilavir, have not been released currently (or ns was unable to discover them). This renders comparing the outcomes of favilavir come hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine difficult, however it does boost the it is provided of antiviral medication that is shown to it is in effective against this outbreak. The drug was originally emerged to law catarrhal, or inflammation that the nose and also throat.

Aviptadil (VIP): VIP has actually been supplied for 20 years in trials for sarcoidosis, pulmonary fibrosis, and also pulmonary hypertension. It was approved for the therapy of acute lung injury, and it’s provided to treat erectile dysfunction in Europe.

VIP is claimed to be provided to avoid acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) that creates in severe COVID-19 cases and kills around 50% that patients. ARDS is a respiratory fail that can follow the serious lung inflammation affecting details categories that patients, consisting of the elderly and those human being suffering from other medical conditions. This patients regularly need to it is in intubated and ventilated with a machine, if a secondary ECMO may aid oxygenate the blood. No all patients who are offered oxygen therapy and also who are placed on ventilators room guaranteed come survive.

Therefore, VIP could be among the last lines the defenses against the novel coronavirus in those cases where far-ranging complications appear, favor sepsis.

“In a ahead trial of VIP because that ARDS led to by sepsis, 7 out of eight patients on mechanical ventilation showed comprehensive improvement, and six at some point left the hospital alive,” NeuroRx CEO Prof. Jonathan Javitt said. “Patients on ventilators because that COVID-19 (without this drug) have only a 50 percent opportunity of survival.”

The Food and also Drug management (FDA) has issued a “study might proceed” letter for NeuroRx, in partnership through Swiss drug advance company Relief Therapeutics, to go forward v a phase 2 attempt of the drug. 

Remdesivir: Remdesivir was approved for treatment in China. Intended to treat Ebola virus, remdesivir has reportedly been used to act one American sickened through COVID-19, and also the patient in question fully recovered. Yet clinical trials for remdesivir have actually not shown as positive results as the antimalarial drugs.

Ritonavir: medical professionals in southern Korea reported that they used the HIV combination drug lopinavir to add ritonavir — marketed together Kaletra — to successfully treat COVID-19 in a 54-year-old patient. Outcomes in the first clinical trial were disappointing.

Overall, the medical ar has adjusted and found ways to attack the virus and aid patients. While not all of the initially touted medicines have turned the end to be repeatedly effective, they certainly have discovered some that will have a profound affect on COVID-19 care. With offers of this drugs currently limited, anti-viral drugs are mainly being offered to death the virus in those struggle the hardest, regularly in conjunction through antibiotics (to help fight bacterial comorbidities like pneumonia), to keep human being from the ICU. Preventative use may be limited to high risk populations such as medical care workers. As supplies increase and as testing becomes prevalent and also timely, anti-viral medicine might be prescribed at first diagnosis or first sign that respiratory problems to prevent any type of hospitalization or significant symptoms.

Let’s move to the following section the the treatments, antibodies.

Antibody: also called immunoglobulin, a protective protein produced by the immune device in an answer to the visibility of a foreign substance, dubbed an antigen. Antibodies recognize and latch top top antigens in stimulate to eliminate them indigenous the body. A wide selection of building materials are related to by the body as antigens, including disease-causing organisms and toxic materials such together insect venom.

There are 4 main means for the human body to develop antibodies come COVID-19 (or any kind of antigen). Contract and recover indigenous the disease, receive the antibody from who who has actually caught and also recovered indigenous the disease, get an injection of lab created antibodies directly, or obtain a vaccination shot i m sorry will begin the body creating an antibody the hopefully will work on COVID-19.

Herd Immunity: capturing COVID-19 will certainly be the primary means most people build the antibodies. Research studies are reflecting 25% – 75% of world that record the virus space asymptomatic. That those symptomatic, the majority of cases are mild (no hospitalization) with a minimum that 80% that symptomatic patients in this category. This is why I believe a test for the antibodies is the most crucial test in this entirety process. Once world discover they have the antibodies, they can resume life and also donate blood to assist those that have not occurred the antibodies.

Convalescent plasma: Convalescent plasma is a century-old an approach that requires taking antitoxin from the blood that a person who has actually survived an illness, in this case COVID-19, spinning it to extract the antibodies, and transferring them right into an infected person.

Various countries, consisting of China and also the joined States, have also asked patients that have fully recovered native COVID-19 come donate your blood plasma for feasible use together the basis of a new treatment for the virus. Mike Ryan, executive, management director of the people Health Organization’s Emergencies Program, said the approach, known as hyperimmune globulin therapy, has been supplied for years in the therapy of famous diseases. The theory is that those who have actually recovered from famous infections have antibodies versus the condition in your blood, and that those antibodies deserve to be pass on to others who have actually been infected via transfusion, giving their immune mechanism with a essential “boost,” he explained. However, the key to its efficiency is time — transfusions must be performed beforehand enough in the food of the disease for the antibodies to work.

My old roommate is recovered from COVID-19 and also he and his wife space going ago in to be tested because that antibodies in a few weeks. They will certainly donate blood if they accomplish the requirements. Follow to a close girlfriend working through COVID-19 patient in Illinois, that therapy will be beginning soon here. New York is likewise undergoing a trial.

Engineered Antibody: Dr. Glanville is one of the doctors featured in the Netflix show “Pandemic.” His team in the just Area has actually been working around the clock trying come come up through a drug to act COVID-19. On Monday, he announced the believes they’ve discovered one.

“We room happy to announce we have actually completed the engineering and we have actually some really potent antitoxin that deserve to be effective against the virus,” said Dr. Glanville.

Glanville’s team had emerged antibodies come neutralize SARS and their lab adapted them to recognize COVID-19. Dr. Glanville has sent samples to the military.

His full interview to be fascinating and very educational.

Vaccine: A preparation of eliminated microorganisms, living weakened organisms, or living completely virulent organisms that is administered to produce or artificially boost immunity come a particular disease.

When ns listen to the media, a vaccine seems to it is in the just solution they can comprehend in ~ times. Vaccines have actually an benefit because they have the right to be administered in advancement of an episode to increase herd immune if over there is no antibody therapy available.

There are additionally some far-reaching disadvantages.

Even though plenty of vaccines space aggressively in the process of gift developed, it will likely more than a year before a vaccine deserve to be developed, tested, approved and also produced in ~ scale. This pandemic will certainly be so far along the they most likely will no make much of a difference. The SARS and MERS vaccine advancement stopped or slowed down as soon as the epidemics stopped.


Vaccines must be administered much in advancement of capturing the disease, so the body has actually time to fight it and also develop antibodies. They perform no good, and, in fact, deserve to only cause harm to who that already has the virus.

Many vaccines try to emulate the virus, yet viruses morph over time in order to prevent antibodies. As we see with the flu vaccine, i beg your pardon the CDC says is effective around 50% of the time.

Vaccines also, through necessity, contain multiple ingredients the are likely to not be great for the person body. The immune mechanism can likewise associate this ingredients with the virus and have extreme auto-immune reaction in the future.

Vaccines are additionally a more expensive kind of health care than several of the other options. Shots like the flu shot room annual. Something mandatory has actually a large market (and huge corresponding cost). The malaria drugs that have actually been roughly for 80 years and cost very tiny will be less rewarding for large pharmaceutical companies.

There is no doubt who will develop a COVID-19 vaccine at part point. Links to a couple of of the people in procedure now space below.



Antibodies execute not constantly last in the body. If a human is no exposed to the virus within some period, the antibody will disappear from their system. In the case of the 4 respiratory coronaviruses, instances of reinfections are observed after ~ eight to 12 months. This has not been figured out for COVID-19 yet.


Although a person can record a virus again (flu, cold) the believed is your body will certainly react faster, and the severity will be lessened. This principle uses to all 4 antibody therapies above.

See more: Does Britney Spears Have Custody Of Her Children, A Complete Timeline


Proning: This walk not autumn into the antiviral or antibody classification – however it is critical development in the care of patients. Proning (placing civilization on your stomachs to acquire their heart load off their lungs as soon as incubated or having actually trouble breathing) is a very effective way to assist those having trouble breathing. It boosts lung capacity when people are no hope in need of oxygen supply. In my last conversation with staff treating the worst COVID-19 cases in the Chicagoland area, the sentiment was that proning was turning out to be a lifesaver for some people.

I establish I’ve mutual a great deal that information, however I’m encouraged by every the amazing development that has been make in the fight versus COVID-19.