Almost ~ above a day-to-day basis, pharmacologists come into call with someone v a stomach ailment. The is vital to discover out what led to the patient's stomach upset and also then to offer tips on how to treat it (Table 1).

Stomach ache or Cramping

Gas, indigestion, or possibly gastritis (an inflammation that the lining the the stomach) have the right to cause ab pain. The trouble can result from overeating, or it can be a reaction come alcohol, caffeine, or even medication. Diet restrictions, such as taking just bland foods and also clear liquids, could relieve the symptoms.

Antacids, which are neutralizing agents, are often used to relieve the symptoms of heartburn (Table 2). Because that instance, the ingredient in Pepto-Bismol (bismuth subsalicylate) coats the esophagus, acts together a obstacle to reflux, and alleviates pain and other symptoms. Pepto-Bismol is suggested for indigestion, heartburn, upset stomach, nausea, and also diarrhea. Kids with flu-like symptoms should not take it, since it can lead to Reye's syndrome.

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Flatulence (Intestinal Gas)

Gas is a natural component of the digestive process. It have the right to be led to by beans and also some fruits and also other vegetables. Natural commodities to law gas incorporate chamomile and also peppermint. OTC formulations save on computer simethicone, a defoaming agent. In enhancement to simethicone, Flatulex, for example, has activated charcoal, i m sorry absorbs substances the may cause gas and likewise relieves gas pain and bloating. New formulations that antacids and also simethicone room now easily accessible (Table 3).

Beano, another product authorized for treating flatulence, originates from the Aspergillus niger mold and is a solution of an enzyme known as alpha-Galactosidase. This enzyme breaks under oligosaccharides (which high-fiber foods items contain) and can it is in a prophylactic treatment for gas resulted in by high-fiber foods.


Diarrhea can take place as a result of a stomach virus, food poisoning, stress, and particular medications, and also it have the right to lead come dehydration. Patients should be counseled come drink lot of of clean fluids that do not save too much sugar. In enhancement to diet restrictions, Pedialyte might be recommended for electrolyte ns (Table 4). If diarrhea lasts much longer than 48 hours, a physician must be consulted.


Whereas numerous factors add to heartburn, it generally is resulted in by a poorly functioning reduced esophageal sphincter, which permits the contents of the stomach to back up into the esophagus. Pregnancy, obesity, smoking, caffeine, alcohol, chocolate, and spicy foodstuffs may reason or aggravate heartburn.

Antacids are first-line therapy (Table 2). Taken before a meal, they provide relief for around 40 to 60 minutes, and up come 3 hrs if taken after ~ a meal. Frequent use that antacids comprise aluminum, however, can cause constipation, and also those comprise magnesium can cause diarrhea. Antacids deserve to affect particular medications, so that is recipient to different doses by at the very least 2 hours.

Gaviscon, comprise alginic acid as well as sodium bicarbonate, aluminum, and magnesium, coats the stomach. Tablets must be chewed and taken through plenty of water.

Pepcid complete is a combination of famotidine (a histamine2-receptor antagonist ) and also magnesium hydroxide and also calcium carbonate. It supplies the advantage of notice relief indigenous the antacids and also acid palliation from the H2RA. Experts have discovered that this mix offers much more sustained relief.

Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have actually a longer duration of activity than H2RAs. Prilosec OTC, a 20-mg tablet, is the only PPI currently available over the counter.

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PPIs may interact with particular drugs, such as warfarin and diazepam, however.