A new crowd-funded investigative journalism project, division the to exclude, story of just how the United states intelligence community funded, nurtured and also incubated Google as component of a drive to overcome the human being through regulate of information. Seed-funded through the NSA and CIA, Google was merely the an initial among a plethora of personal sector start-ups co-opted by US intelligence to retain ‘information superiority.’

The origins of this ingenious strategy trace ago to a an enig Pentagon-sponsored group, the for the last two decades has operated as a bridge in between the united state government and elites across the business, industry, finance, corporate, and media sectors. The team has enabled some that the most an effective special understand in this firm America to systematically circumvent autonomous accountability and the preeminence of law to influence federal government policies, and public opinion in the US and around the world. The results have been catastrophic: NSA mass surveillance, a long-term state of an international war, and also a new initiative to transform the us military into Skynet.

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In the wake of the Charlie Hebdo strikes in Paris, western governments are moving quick to legitimize expanded powers of fixed surveillance and also controls ~ above the internet, all in the name of fighting terrorism.

US and also Europeanpoliticianshave dubbed to protect NSA-style snooping, and also to advancement the capacity to intrude on net privacy through outlawing encryption. One idea is to establish a telecoms cooperation that would certainly unilaterally delete content deemed to “fuel hatred and violence” in situations considered “appropriate.” heated discussions room going on in ~ government and parliamentary level to check out cracking down onlawyer-clientconfidentiality.

What any type of of this would have done to avoid the Charlie Hebdo strikes remains amystery, specifically given that we currently know the terrorists were on the radar of French intelligence for up to a decade.

There is little brand-new in this story. The 9/11 atrocity to be the an initial of plenty of terrorist attacks, each succeeded by the dramatic expansion of draconian state strength at the price of polite liberties, donate up through the projection of military force in regions identified as hotspots harbouring terrorists. However there is little indication the this tried and tested formula has done anything to minimize the danger. If anything, we show up to be locked into a deepening bike of violence v no clear end in sight.

As our federal governments push to increase their powers,INSURGE INTELLIGENCEcan currently reveal the substantial extent come which the us intelligence community is implicated in nurturing the web platforms we know today, because that the precise purpose of making use of the an innovation as a mechanism to fight an international ‘information war’ — a war to legitimize the power of the few over the remainder of us. The lynchpin that this story is the corporation the in countless ways specifies the 21st century with its unobtrusive omnipresence: Google.

Google formats itself as a friendly, funky, user-friendly technology firm that climbed to prestige through a mix of skill, luck, and also genuine innovation. This is true. However it is a just fragment the the story. In reality, Google is a smokescreen behind which lurks the united state military-industrial complex.

The within story of Google’s rise, revealed here for the first time, opens a deserve to of worms that goes far beyond Google, suddenly shining a light on the existence of a parasitical network steering the advancement of the US nationwide security apparatus, and profiting obscenely native its operation.

The zero network

For the last two decades, united state foreign and intelligence strategies have actually resulted in a an international ‘war on terror’ consists of prolonged military invasions in the Muslim civilization and substantial surveillance that civilian populations. These strategies have actually been incubated, if no dictated, by a mystery network inside and also beyond the Pentagon.

Established under the Clinton administration, consolidated under Bush, and firmly entrenched under Obama, this bipartisan network of largely neoconservative ideologues sealed its ascendancy inside the us Department of Defense (DoD) by the dawn the 2015, v the procedure of one obscure this firm entity exterior the Pentagon, however run through the Pentagon.

In 1999, the CIA developed its own venture funding investment firm, In-Q-Tel, to money promising start-ups that can create technologies useful for intelligence agencies. Yet the inspiration for In-Q-Tel come earlier, as soon as the Pentagon set up its own private ar outfit.

Known as the ‘Highlands Forum,’ this private network has operated as a bridge between the Pentagon and powerful American elites exterior the military since the mid-1990s. Despite alters in civilian administrations, the network approximately the Highlands Forum has come to be increasingly successful in conquering US defense policy.

Giant defense home builders like Booz Allen Hamilton and also Science Applications global Corporation are occasionally referred to together the ‘shadow intelligence community’ due to the revolving doors in between them and also government, and also their volume to concurrently influence and profit from defense policy. However while these building contractors compete for power and money, they likewise collaborate where it counts. The Highlands Forum has for two decades provided an off the record an are for some of the most influential members that the shadow intelligence community to convene with an elderly US federal government officials, alongside other leaders in appropriate industries.

I an initial stumbled upon the presence of this network in November 2014, as soon as I reported because that VICE’sMotherboardthat us defense secretary lining Hagel’s freshly announced ‘Defense invention Initiative’ was really aboutbuilding Skynet— or something like it, essentially to overcome an arising era of automated robotic warfare.

That story was based upon a little-known Pentagon-funded ‘white paper’ published two months earlier by the nationwide Defense college (NDU) in Washington DC, a leading us military-run college that, among other things, generates study to build US defense plan at the highest possible levels. The white file clarified the thinking behind the brand-new initiative, and also the revolutionary clinical and technological developments it hope to capitalize on.

The Highlands Forum

The co-author of the NDU white record is Linton Wells, a 51-year veteran united state defense official who offered in the Bush administration as the Pentagon’s chief details officer, overseeing the national Security company (NSA) and other spy agencies. Hestill holdsactive top-secret security clearances, and according to a report byGovernment Executivemagazine in 2006 hechaired the ‘Highlands Forum’, started by the Pentagon in 1994.

Dr. Anita Jones, head that DARPA native 1993–1997, and also co-chair of the Pentagon Highlands Forum indigenous 1995–1997, throughout which public representative in charge of the CIA-NSA-MDSS regime were funding Google, and also in communication with DARPA about data-mining for counterterrorism

On theboardof the national Science foundation from 1992 to 1998 (including a stint as chairman from 1996) to be Richard N. Zare. This was the duration in which the NSF sponsored Sergey Brin and Larry page in association through DARPA. In June 1994, Prof. Zare, a chemist in ~ Stanford, participated v Prof. Jeffrey Ullman (who oversaw Sergey Brin’s research), ~ above apanelsponsored through Stanford and the nationwide Research Council pointing out the need for scientists to show how their job-related “ties to nationwide needs.” The panel brought together scientists and policymakers, including “Washington insiders.”

DARPA’s EELD program, motivated by the occupational of Thuraisingham and also Steinheiser under Jones’ watch, to be rapidly adapted and incorporated with a suite of devices to conduct substantial surveillance under the shrub administration.

According come DARPA officialTed Senator, who led the EELD regime for the agency’s short-lived info Awareness Office, EELD was among a selection of “promising techniques” being all set for integration “into the prototype TIA system.” TIA was standing for full Information Awareness, and also was the key globalelectronic eavesdropping and also data-mining programdeployed by the Bush administration after 9/11. TIA had actually been set up by Iran-Contra conspirator Admiral john Poindexter, that was appointed in 2002 by shrub to command DARPA’s new Information Awareness Office.

The Xerox Palo Alto Research facility (PARC) was one more contractor among 26 providers (also consisting of SAIC) that received million dollar contract fromDARPA(the specific quantities remained classified) under Poindexter, to press forward the TIA surveillance regimen in 2002 onwards. The research consisted of “behaviour-based profiling,” “automated detection, identification and tracking” of terrorist activity, among other data-analyzing projects. At this time, PARC’s director and chief scientist was man Seely Brown. Both Brown and also Poindexter were Pentagon Highlands Forum entrants — Brown top top a constant basis till recently.

TIA to be purportedly shut down in 2003 because of public opposition after ~ the regimen was exposed in the media, yet the adhering to year Poindexter participated in a Pentagon Highlands group session in Singapore, together defense and security public representative from around the world. Meanwhile, Ted Senator ongoing to control the EELD program among other data-mining and evaluation projects in ~ DARPA till 2006, when he left to come to be a vice president at SAIC. He is currently a SAIC/Leidos technological fellow.

Google, DARPA and the money trail

Long prior to the illustration of Sergey Brin and Larry Page, Stanford University’s computer science department had actually a nearby working partnership with US military intelligence. Aletterdated November 5th 1984 indigenous the office of renowned man-made intelligence (AI) expert, Prof Edward Feigenbaum, addressed to stack Steinheiser, provides the last directions to Stanford’s Heuristic Programming Project, addressing Steinheiser together a member that the “AI Steering Committee.” Alistof attendees at a contractor conference about that time, funded by the Pentagon’s Office the Naval research study (ONR), contains Steinheiser as a delegate under the designation “OPNAV Op-115” — which refers to the Office the the cook of marine Operations’ regimen on to work readiness, which play a significant role in proceeding digital systems for the military.

From the 1970s, Prof. Feigenbaum and his colleagues had actually been to run Stanford’s Heuristic Programming project undercontractwith DARPA,continuingthrough to the 1990s. Feigenbaum alone had received aroundover $7 millionin this period for his work-related from DARPA, along with other resources from the NSF, NASA, and also ONR.

Brin’s supervisor at Stanford, Prof. Jeffrey Ullman, was in 1996 part of a joint capital project the DARPA’s smart Integration of Informationprogram. The year, Ullman co-chaired DARPA-sponsored meetings top top data exchange in between multiple systems.

In September 1998, the same month that Sergey Brin briefed US knowledge representatives Steinheiser and Thuraisingham, tech entrepreneurs Andreas Bechtolsheim and also David Cheriton invested $100,000 every in Google. Both investors were linked to DARPA.

As a Stanford doctor student in electric engineering in the 1980s, Bechtolsheim’s pioneering sun workstation project had actually beenfundedby DARPA and also the Stanford computer science department — this research study was the structure of Bechtolsheim’s establishment of sunlight Microsystems, which he co-founded with William Joy.

As because that Bechtolsheim’s co-investor in Google, David Cheriton, the latter is a long-time Stanford computer system science professor who has actually an even more entrenched relationship with DARPA. Hisbioat the college of Alberta, i m sorry in November 2014 awarded that an honorary scientific research doctorate, claims that Cheriton’s “research has actually received the support of the us Defense progressed Research Projects company (DARPA) because that over 20 years.”

In the meantime, Bechtolsheim left sun Microsystems in 1995, co-founding Granite solution with his other Google investor Cheriton as a partner. They sold Granite to Cisco equipment in 1996, retaining significant ownership of Granite, and becoming an elderly Cisco executives.

An email obtained from the Enron corpus (a database that 600,000 emails acquired by the Federal energy Regulatory Commission and also later released to the public) indigenous Richard O’Neill, inviting Enron executives to get involved in the Highlands Forum, mirrors that Cisco and Granite executives are intimately associated to the Pentagon. The email reveals that in might 2000, Bechtolsheim’s partner and also Sun Microsystems co-founder, William happiness — who was then chief scientist and also corporate executive, management officer over there — had attended the Forum to discuss nanotechnology and molecular computing.

In 1999, delight had likewise co-chaired the President’s Information an innovation Advisory Committee, overseeing a report acknowledging the DARPA had:

“… revised its top priorities in the 90’s so that all information an innovation funding to be judged in terms of its advantage to the warfighter.”

Throughout the 1990s, then, DARPA’s funding to Stanford, consisting of Google, was explicitly around developing innovations that can augment the Pentagon’s military intelligence operations in battle theatres.

The joy report recommended much more federal government resources from the Pentagon, NASA, and other organ to the that sector. Greg Papadopoulos, one more of Bechtolsheim’s colleagues together then sun Microsystems chief an innovation officer, also attended a Pentagon Highlands’ Forum conference in September 2000.

In November, the Pentagon Highlands Forum organized Sue Bostrom, who was vice president for the net at Cisco, sitting on the company’s plank alongside Google co-investors Bechtolsheim and Cheriton. The Forum also hosted Lawrence Zuriff, climate a managing partner the Granite, i m sorry Bechtolsheim and also Cheriton had actually sold come Cisco. Zuriff had previously to be an SAIC contractor native 1993 come 1994, working with the Pentagon on national security issues, particularly for Marshall’s Office of network Assessment. In 1994, both the SAIC and the ONA were, the course, connected in co-establishing the Pentagon Highlands Forum. Among Zuriff’s output throughout his SAIC tenure was a document titled‘Understanding details War’, ceded at a SAIC-sponsored US army Roundtable ~ above the revolution in military Affairs.

After Google’s incorporation, the company received $25 million in equity resources in 1999 led by Sequoia Capital and also Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers. Follow toHomeland security Today, “A variety of Sequoia-bankrolled start-ups have contracted v the department of Defense, particularly after 9/11 once Sequoia’s note Kvamme met v Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld to comment on the applications of arising technologies to warfighting and intelligence collection.” Similarly, Kleiner Perkins had arisen “a nearby relationship” v In-Q-Tel, the CIA endeavor capitalist firm that funds start-ups “to advancement ‘priority’ innovations of value” come the intelligence community.

John Doerr, who led the Kleiner Perkins invest in Google obtaining a plank position, was a major early investors in Becholshtein’s sun Microsystems in ~ its launch. He and his wife Anne are the main funders behind Rice University’s facility for design Leadership (RCEL), i m sorry in 2009received$16 million native DARPA because that its platform-aware-compilation-environment (PACE) ubiquitous computer R&D program. Doerr additionally has a close relationship with the Obama administration, which the advised shortly after that took strength toramp upPentagon capital to the tech industry. In 2013, at the happiness Brainstorm TECHconference, Doerr applauded “how the DoD’s DARPA sponsor GPS, CAD, most of the significant computer scientific research departments, and also of course, the Internet.”

From inception, in various other words, Google was incubated, nurtured and financed through interests the were straight affiliated or very closely aligned through the united state military intelligence community: plenty of of whom were installed in the Pentagon Highlands Forum.

Google catches the Pentagon

In 2003, Google began customizing its find engine underspecial contractwith the CIA because that its Intelink monitoring Office, “overseeing top-secret, secret and sensitive yet unclassified intranets because that CIA and also other IC agencies,” according toHomeland security Today.That year, CIA funding was likewise being “quietly” funneled with the nationwide Science structure to projects that might aid create “new capabilities come combat terrorism through progressed technology.”

The adhering to year, Google bought the firmKeyhole, which had originally been funded through In-Q-Tel. Making use of Keyhole, Google began developing the advanced satellite mapping software behind Google Earth. Former DARPA director and also Highlands Forum co-chair Anita Jones had actually been top top theboardof In-Q-Tel in ~ this time, and remains therefore today.

Then in November 2005, In-Q-Tel issued notices to offer $2.2 million the Google stocks. Google’s relationship with US knowledge was further carried to light once anIT contractortold a closeup of the door Washington DC conference that intelligence professionals on a not-for-attribution basis the at least one us intelligence company was working to “leverage Google’s data monitoring” capability as part of an initiative to obtain data of “national security knowledge interest.”

Aphotoon Flickr dated March 2007 reveals the Google research director and also AI professional Peter Norvig attend a Pentagon Highlands Forum meeting that year in Carmel, California. Norvig’s intimate connection to the Forum together of the year is also corroborated by his function inguest editingthe 2007 Forum analysis list.

The photo listed below shows Norvig in conversation v Lewis Shepherd, that at that time was senior technology officer in ~ the Defense knowledge Agency,responsible forinvestigating, approving, and also architecting “all new hardware/software systems and also acquisitions because that the an international Defense knowledge IT Enterprise,” consisting of “big data technologies.” Shepherd now works in ~ Microsoft. Norvig was a computer system research scientist in ~ Stanford college in 1991 before joining Bechtolsheim’s sun Microsystems as senior scientist until 1994, and going on to head increase NASA’s computer science division.

Norvig shows up ~ above O’Neill’sGoogle add to profileas among his near connections. Scoping the rest of O’Neill’s Google Plus relations illustrates the he is directly connected not simply to a wide selection of Google executives, but likewise to several of the best names in the US technology community.

Those connections incorporate Michele Weslander Quaid, one ex-CIA contractor and also former an elderly Pentagon intelligence official that is now Google’s chief modern technology officer wherein she is developingprogramsto “best fit federal government agencies’ needs”; Elizabeth Churchill, Google manager of user experience; James Kuffner, a humanoid robotics expert who currently heads up Google’s robotics department and who presented the hatchet ‘cloud robotics’; note Drapeau, director of innovation engagement for Microsoft’s public sector business; Lili Cheng, general manager of Microsoft’s Future society Experiences (FUSE) Labs; Jon Udell, Microsoft ‘evangelist’; Cory Ondrejka, vice president of design at Facebook; come name just a few.

In 2010, Google signed a multi-billion dollarno-bid contractwith the NSA’s sister agency, the nationwide Geospatial-Intelligence company (NGA). The contract was to usage Google planet for visualization services for the NGA. Google had occurred the software program behind Google planet by purchasing Keyhole native the CIA undertaking firm In-Q-Tel.

Then a year after, in 2011, one more of O’Neill’s Google plus connections, Michele Quaid — who had actually served in executive positions at the NGA, national Reconnaissance Office and the Office the the director of National intelligence — left she government role to come to be Google ‘innovation evangelist’ and the point-person because that seeking federal government contracts. Quaid’s last function before her relocate to Google was as a an elderly representative that the director of National knowledge to the Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance job Force, and also a an elderly advisor to the undersecretary of defense because that intelligence’s manager of Joint and Coalition Warfighter assistance (J&CWS). Both roles involved information work at your core. Before her Google move, in various other words, Quaid worked very closely with the Office that the Undersecretary the Defense because that Intelligence, to which the Pentagon’s Highlands Forum is subordinate. Quaid has actually herself attend the Forum, though specifically when and also how often I can not confirm.

In march 2012, then DARPA directorRegina Dugan— that in that volume was additionally co-chair the the Pentagon Highlands Forum — adhered to her colleague Quaid into Google to command the company’s brand-new Advanced technology and jobs Group. Throughout her Pentagon tenure, Dugan led on strategy cyber security and also social media, among other initiatives. She to be responsible for concentrating “an enhancing portion” of DARPA’s work-related “on the investigation of offensive capabilities to resolve military-specific needs,” securing $500 million the government resources for DARPAcyber researchfrom 2012 come 2017.

Dr Itamara Lochard is a senior Highlands Forum member and Pentagon information operations expert. She directs the MIIS CyberSec to plan that currently supports the Pentagon Highlands Forum with resources from Goldman Sachs companion George Lee, that led the price of Facebook and also Google.

Dr Lochard maintains a comprehensivedatabaseof 1,700 non-state groups including “insurgents, militias, terrorists, complex criminal organizations, arranged gangs, malicious cyber actors and also strategic non-violent actors,” to analysis their “organizational patterns, areas of cooperation, strategies and tactics.” Notice, here, the cite of “strategic non-violent actors” — which perhaps covers NGOs and also other groups or organizations engaged in society political activity or campaigning, judging by the emphasis ofotherDoD research programs.

As the 2008, Lochard has actually been one adjunct professor in ~ the united state Joint one-of-a-kind Operations college where she teaches atop mystery advanced coursein ‘Irregular Warfare’ that she designed for an elderly US special forces officers. She has previously taught process on ‘Internal War’ for an elderly “political-military officers” of assorted Gulf regimes.

Her views hence disclose much about what the Highlands Forum has actually been advocating every these years. In 2004, Lochard to be co-author that a study for theUS waiting Force’s institute for nationwide Security Studieson us strategy towards ‘non-state armed groups.’ The research on the one hand argued that non-state armed groups must be urgently recognized as a ‘tier one security priority,’ and also on the other that the proliferation of armed groups “provide strategic methods that have the right to be exploited come help attain policy goals. There have and will it is in instances wherein the United claims may discover collaborating with equipped group is in its strategy interests.” but “sophisticated tools” have to be developed to differentiate in between different groups and understand your dynamics, to identify which teams should be countered, and also which can be exploited for united state interests. “Armed group profiles can an in similar way be work to identify ways in i beg your pardon the unified States may assist specific armed groups whose success will certainly be advantageous to US international policy objectives.”

In 2008,Wikileakspublished a leaked limited US military Special Operations ar manual, i m sorry demonstrated the the type of thinking advocated by the likes the Highlands expert Lochard had been explicitly embraced by united state special forces.

Lochard’s work hence demonstrates that the Highlands Forum sat at the intersection of advanced Pentagon strategy ~ above surveillance, surprise operations and also irregular warfare: mobilizing mass security to build detailed info on violent and non-violent groups perceived as possibly threatening to us interests, or offering avenues for exploitation, hence feeding straight into US concealed operations.

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That, ultimately, is why the CIA, the NSA, the Pentagon, spawned Google. For this reason they can run their mystery dirty battles with even greater effectiveness than ever before.