L.T."s endure of rape to be violent, painful, and also humiliating. The rape itself was physically agonizing, the result rectal soreness lasted number of days, and L.T."s intense fear of contracting HIV persisted for months. But worst the all, because that him, to be the disastrous psychological impact of the attack. Racked by proceeding nightmares, depression, and also thoughts the suicide, L.T. Believed that the rape had irretrievably damaged his psyche. Formerly a trusted person, he found himself retreating from society contact, ending up being angry, suspicious, and reclusive. Regardless of the psychological trauma the suffered, he received no counseling if incarcerated, nor did he success in obtaining legal help in his succeeding court challenge to the abuse. Without having actually secured psychological treatment or any measure that accountability for the violent injustice he had endured, L.T. To be paroled from jail in late 1998. His instance is all as well typical.

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Some inmates contract HIV together a an outcome of prison rape; because that them, the aftermath of the attack may it is in deadly. Various other inmates are eliminated or seriously injured throughout the violent physical strikes that sometimes accompany rape. However all inmates who room raped suffer mental harm.

Although invisible, the psychological effects of jail rape space serious and also enduring: castle raise vital questions regarding the fail of jail authorities to take reliable measures to avoid such abuse. The physics brutality of rape is deplorable. Nonetheless, the physical affect of such abuse is regularly less devastating, and far less permanent, than its psychological impact. Indeed, numerous instances that non-consensual sex happen through coercion, hazards or deception: they may not leaving physical marks, yet deep and also permanent mental injury.

Physical Effects and the threat of HIV Transmission The physical impacts of a sexual attack obviously differ according to its circumstances: whether, because that example, the incident affiliated a violent attack, whether there was anal penetration, and also whether a lubricant was used. As described in chapter V, a forcible rape the occurs as part of a bigger physical assault may be incredibly violent. Detainees with whom person Rights clock is in contact have endured rape-related injuries ranging from damaged bones to shed teeth come concussions to bloody gashes requiring dozens of stitches. A few, like previous Texas inmate Randy Payne, were killed throughout sexual assaults.

Another Texas inmate who tried on several occasions to fight turn off sexual attacks told human being Rights Watch the he might map out on his body the results of resisting his abusers:

To give you one idea what I mean . . . Ns now have actually scar"s where I"ve been gutted, under the appropriate side of mine chest listed below my heart, where my neck was cut open and under my left arm. That"s not the numerous minor cuts and wound"s i can"t include in this letter because of absence of time & space.(302)

The medical records of several various other prisoners with whom human Rights clock has been in contact portray a similar picture of physical savagery. And, in itself, forced anal penetration may reason intense pain, abrasions, soreness, bleeding, even, in some cases, tearing the the anus or infection of the HIV virus.

The danger of HIV TransmissionTransmission of HIV, the virus which reasons AIDS, is a significant threat to victim of jail rape. In 1994, one Illinois inmate, M. B., declared that he contracted HIV native being consistently raped at the Menard Correctional Center. He experiment HIV-negative after ~ being sent out to Menard in may 1993, but was HIV-positive as soon as tested again the following April. M. B. Filed suit against the Illinois department of Correction, prompting Rep. Cal Skinner, Jr., one Illinois state representative, to introduce legislation to defend prisoners versus rape.(303) together Representative Skinner warned, victims of prison rape challenge the opportunity of one "unadjudicated death sentence," subverting the will of the criminal justice system.

Several other prisoners v whom human Rights clock is in call state that they have contracted HIV through required sexual intercourse in prison. K.S., a sinner in Arkansas, was repeatedly raped in between January and December 1991 by more than twenty various inmates, one of whom, the believes, sent the HIV virus to him. K.S. Had actually tested negative for HIV ~ above entry come the jail system, yet in September 1991 he tested positive. Throughout the relevant time period, K.S. Made plenty of requests for assistance to prison officials, relenten the sex-related abuse and asking for protection.

K.S. Carried suit in commonwealth court against the jail officials that failed to protect him.(304) at trial, the warden testified that it to be the prisoners" own responsibility come fight off sexual abuse--that prisoners had actually to allow the others "understand the "re not going to put up with that."(305) in spite of ample evidence that K.S. Had been left to fend for himself against numerous more powerful inmates, the jury made decision in donate of one official while the court rule in favor of two others as a issue of law. The court"s decision was later on reversed ~ above appeal,(306) and as that this creating K.S."s sue is still pending. K.S. Stays incarcerated and is being treated because that HIV. Together for his attackers, K.S. Reports, 2 "got punitive isolation time. The remainder are tho raping various other inmates."(307)

The danger of HIV infection is an especially acute given the high prevalence of the virus among prisoners. In 1997, an estimated 35,000 to 47,000 prisoners were infected v HIV and another 8,900 had AIDS.(308) AIDS is right now the 2nd leading cause of death among prison inmates.(309) between 1991 and 1995 around one in three inmate deaths to be attributable to AID-related causes, compared to one in ten deaths external the prison setting. Exacerbating the peril of HIV infection is the lack of preventative measures, with little attempt made to education prisoners around HIV/AIDS and couple of risk reduction devices available (such as condoms, clean needles, and also bleach).(310)

Psychological Impact Rape"s impacts on the victim"s psyche space serious and also enduring.(311) Inmates prefer L.T., even if it is they autumn victim come violent sexual assaults or to an ext subtle creates of sexual abuse, leaving the prison mechanism in a state of too much psychological stress, a problem identified as rape trauma syndrome. Provided that many world in such condition leave prison every year, the is necessary to think about the larger after-effects of prison rape. Serious concerns arise as to how the trauma of sex-related abuse resolves itself once inmates space released into society.

Victims of jail rape generally report nightmares, deep depression, shame, ns of self-esteem, self-hatred, and also considering or attempting suicide. Few of them additionally describe a significant increase in anger and also a propensity toward violence.

Shame and also the "Loss the Manhood" The dead I skilled can"t it is in described.--A sinner in Illinois.(312)

Victims of rape are most likely to blame us for your predicament, causing intense feel of shame. As defined previously, instances of undesirable sexual call in prison run the gamut indigenous violent gang rapes to subtle creates of emotional coercion. Also where excessive violence is used, the victim regularly worries, deep down, that he did not placed up sufficient resistance. Indeed, there is part sense, under the unwritten code of inmate beliefs, the a real male "would die before giving up his anal virginity."(313) by the really fact of surviving the experience, therefore, a sinner may issue he deserved it: the he has, in ~ the really least, been proven to it is in "a punk, "pussy," or coward by not staying clear of it."(314) return this view is no universally held--many detainees recognize the it is the perpetrator alone who bears obligation for their victimization--it is still widespread among inmates.

Obviously, victims of cases of coerced sex the did not involve overt violence room even more likely to feeling complicit in their very own abuse. Many of them report thinking obsessively about how they might have avoided the situation, what they go wrong. They speak of profound feelings that shame and embarrassment over how they might have "allowed" the abuse to happen to them. In a letter to human being Rights Watch, a Colorado inmate who fear allowed his cellmate come maneuver him into unwanted sex-related contact, admitted, "If the truth be known, it shames me to even talk the this."(315) His feelings space typical.

In what is possibly an unconscious effort to shield us from obligation for jail abuses, correctional authorities seem to encourage together attitudes, commonly "blaming the victim" themselves. Uneven a sinner is visibly hurt from a sexual assault, guards frequently intimate the the sex was consensual: that the sinner actually invite it. Raped inmates commonly say that they are treated scornfully by safety who perform not bother to hide the fact that castle despise detainees who room so "weak" regarding be victimized. "Stand up because that yourself and be a man," is a common refrain. Happy prisoners, particularly those v stereotypically feminine features or mannerisms, report the guards are specifically likely to ignore their cases of sex-related abuse. Part guards, in fact, show up not to also recognize the gay inmates can refuse other inmates" sex-related advances, city hall homosexuality together a kind of open invitation to sex. As one prisoner, who is not actually gay, remembered: "I had an officer phone call me that "faggots favor to suck dick, so why was ns complaining.""(316)

The tendency to misread victimization together proof of homosexuality appears to be usual to guards and also prisoners alike. In enhancement to feel of fear, depression, and also self-hatred, many prisoners have actually expressed a an ext specific anxiety around the ns of gender identity, fearing the their "manhood" has actually been damaged or eroded. As one sexually abused sinner confessed: "I feeling that perhaps some women might look in ~ me as much less than a man. My pride feels beaten to a pulp."(317)

M.R., a Texas inmate that was nearly killed by his rapist, explained this reaction, which he witnessed as unavoidable: "Men are supposed to be solid enough to save themselves from gift raped. So once it does happen it leaves united state feeling together though our manhood has been stripped indigenous us and also that we space now less than what we as soon as were."(318)

That which is "less 보다 a man" because that these prisoners is, to be specific, a homosexual man, albeit a homosexual identified according to the idiosyncratic rules that govern in the prison context. As defined previously, the meaningful distinction in prison is not between men who interact in sex v men, and also those who engage in sex with women; rather it is in between what are understood the "active" and "passive" participants in sex. Homophobia is rampant in prisons, but rather than targeting all guys who have sexual call with other men, the is focused versus those that play the "woman"s role" in sex: specifically, men who are anally penetrated, who carry out fellatio on other prisoners, or who masturbate them.

Once a prisoner has actually been compelled into together a role, he may quickly be trapped in it. The reality of submitting come rape--even violent, forcible rape--redefines him together "a punk, sissy, queer." various other inmates will check out him together such, withholding from him the respect early out a "man." having actually fallen to the bottom of the inmate hierarchy, he will certainly be treated as though he normally belongs there.

The id that rape damages one"s innermost me is strong among inmates. Indeed, because that the perpetrators that rape, this id provides a compelling reason to go the act: rape shows up to it is in the many powerful method to injure and degrade that victims. Yet what comes of the victims" conviction the they have been basically damaged? human Rights Watch"s research says that at the very least some minority of detainees who endure sex-related abuse will revolve violence on us or others.

Depression, Anxiety and also DespairI go v nightmares of being raped and sexually assaulted. Ns can"t prevent thinking about it. I feel anyone is looking in ~ me in a sex-related way. --A prisoner in Texas(319)

Psychiatrists have established "rape trauma syndrome"--a different of post-traumatic anxiety disorder (PTSD) characterized by depression, serious anxiety, and also despair--as gift a common result of rape.(320) In your correspondence and conversations with human being Rights Watch, victim of prison rape frequently alluded to this symptoms, stating lock felt depressed, paranoid, unhappy, fatigued, and also worried. Feelings of worthlessness and self-hatred were often expressed. Exacerbating the mental stress of your situation, many victims of jail rape feel the they remain breakable to continuing abuse, also believing us trapped in a battle to survive. The fear of ending up being infected through the AIDS virus also preoccupies victims. "Catching Aids and Hiv is a significant concern for everyone," one Arkansas inmate emphasized. "There is no cure."(321)

Rape trauma syndrome was an initial diagnosed exterior of the jail setting, feather at women victims, and most research on it has continued to emphasis on non-incarcerated women. Specialists have identified three step in the aftermath of rape, corresponding to the short-, intermediate- and long-term impact. While no all rape survivors exhibit these symptoms in the order described, the typology offers a beneficial general outline. The temporary reaction to rape is characterized by a selection of traumatic symptoms, consisting of nightmares and other creates of sleep disturbance, intense fear, worry, suspicion, significant depression, and also impairment in social functioning. In the second stage, victims regularly experience depression and also self-hatred, and also social and sexual dysfunction. The long-term impacts of rape, which might surface a year or more after the assault, frequently involve terrible or self-destructive behavior; typical symptoms space anger, hypervigilance to danger, sex-related dysfunction and also a lessened capacity to reap life.(322)According come one study, only 10 percent the rape victims perform not show any type of disruption of their habits following the assault. Part 55 percent of victims display moderately influenced behavior, when the resides of one more 35 percent space severely impaired.

Suicide suicide attempts are a no uncommon an answer to rape, specifically among prisoners who feel unprotected and vulnerable to continuing abuse. Nineteen inmates who corresponded with human being Rights Watch, including eight interviewed in person, reported that they attempted self-destruction as a result of rape in prison, and many an ext reported considering suicide.(323) Indeed, part inmates make the efforts to death themselves an ext than once. The following account is typical:

I have been getting sexually assaulted at by 2 inmates. I tried to commit self-destruction in wishes of releaving the misery the it. . . . Ns was made come perform oral sex ~ above the 2 inmates for exchange of protection from other inmates. . . . I reported the activity of the inmates come the Unit authority yet did not acquire any aid so that is once I slashed both mine wrists in hope of dying.(324)

Another sinner told human being Rights Watch:

I did ripe years from March 1983 come November 1991. In that 9 years i was raped numerous times. . . . Ns came ago to prison in 1993. In 1994 ns was raped again. Ns attempted suicide. . . . The doctors here in the prison say "quote" significant depression many neurotic symptoms, marked by too much fear, unrelenting worry and debilitating anxiety. Antisocial suicidal ideation, self-degradation, paranoia and also hopelessness are characteristic, "unquote."(325)

The situation of Rodney Hulin, Jr., a seventeen-year-old Texas prisoner, is i m so sad illustrative of the problem. Hulin was repetitively raped over a two-month duration by enlarge inmates. In January 1996, simply after he wrote to his father saying he was tired of jail life and also tired of living, the attempted self-destruction by hanging self in his cell. Return the attempt to be discovered before Hulin was dead, he to be left in a coma and also died four months later.

In general, suicide prices in prisons and also jails room well above those in the outside community. Suicide ranks 3rd as a cause of death in prison (after natural causes and AIDS), while that is the leading reason of death in jails.(326) from 1984 to 1993, the rate of prison self-destruction was an ext than 50 percent higher than the nationwide average external of prison.(327) Notably, "victimization" and also "conflicts in ~ the facility" space two that the main troubles that professionals have determined in specifying the stressful determinants that an outcome in inmate suicide.(328)

These figures are much much more striking as soon as one considers the practical challenge of committing suicide in prison. Unequal in the external world, whereby an individual can quickly isolate self from other human being for hours or days in ~ a time, in jail a human is rarely out that earshot the others, or even out of your sight. Indeed, in today"s prisons, countless inmates space double-celled or live in crowded dormitories, unlikely locations for a suicide attempt to happen unnoticed. Back drugs are dispensed in prison, lock are much more closely regulation than exterior of the jail setting. Many prison self-destruction attempts, also those in which the inmate is determined to death himself, are likely to it is in unsuccessful. Person Rights Watch to be unable to attain comparative statistics on check suicides, yet would doubt that, in comparing prison numbers v numbers outside of prison, the rates are even an ext disproportionate 보다 those involving accomplished suicides.

Anger and the cycle of Violence n 1991 ns was raped by the Arizona "Aryan Brotherhood" a prison gang. I didnt tell the guards, i was scared & alone. The security knew about it, due to the fact that they called me they room going to relocate me, & therefore they did, but to a worst prison. Where I obtained into the with much more "ABs"....I am a 26 year old White Boy that don"t have anybody, but a many anger!....Back come a little an ext about my Rape. The guys didnt get recorded in the Act somebody told the guards and also they asked me if ns was alright. Then moved me....I wanted to go ago to the yard and also kill them that did it!(329)

In the results of rape, prisoners regularly harbor intense feelings the anger--anger directed very first at the perpetrators the abuse, but also at prison authorities who failed to react as necessary to protect them, and also even at culture as a whole. Part prisoners have confessed to acquisition violent revenge on their abusers, motivated both through anger and also by a desire come escape more abuse. The best and sometimes the only method to protect against the repetition of sexual abuse, many prisoners assert, is come strike back violently. Just put, come prove the one is not a victim, one have to take ~ above the characteristics of a perpetrator. Because violence, in the prison setting, is nearly a synonym because that strength and virility, a readiness to use violence confirms one"s "manhood."

A Texas inmate defined the dynamic in the adhering to way:

It"s fixed where if you"re raped, the only method you friend rape who else. Yes I know that"s completely screwed, however that"s just how your head is twisted. After it"s end you may be disgusted through yourself, however you establish you"re no powerless and that you can deliver and receive pain. Then it"s approximately you to decide whether you reap it or not. Many do, i don"t.(330)

Summing increase the case in a phrase, he emphasized: "People start to treat you right as soon as you become deadly."

Beyond encouraging violent actions from that victims, prison rape also evokes violence native those detainees with no direct exposure to it. Countless inmates, consisting of those who are relatively non-violent through nature, will to violence together a safety shield versus rape, to prove the they are not to be bullied. Research studies have discovered that even the vague, indeterminate possibility of rape is a an effective impetus for jail violence.(331)

In a letter to human Rights Watch, one prisoner also cited are afraid of rape together being amongst the causes of rape itself, sketching an oddly circular picture of the phenomenon. The said: "One reason is the insecure, weak inmate preying on an additional weaker inmate, to do an impression the toughness or ruthlessness the he hopes will discourage other inmates indigenous doing the exact same thing come him."(332)

Numerous prisoners have described to human being Rights clock the aggressive postures that they have adopted as a safeguard versus rape. By reacting violent to the slightest show of disrespect, inmates think that they deserve to avoid the slippery slope that leads to rape. A fast resort to violence is, in your view, crucial to prove that they are ready and equipped to protect themselves.

In the prison context, even the many trivial incident have the right to be viewed as a an essential test of one inmate"s "manhood." Violence might ensue at the little provocation. The complying with incident--in which, together this inmate put it, he had actually to prove to everyone the he to be "not going to be anyone"s punk"--is typical:

one night 4 weeks right into my prison continue to be i was tested by a very big north amerikkkan prisoner. That attempted come lay a bully game down on me by taking my seat in the lounge room. Which brought about me resorting earlier to mine street warfare assault which was my only an option to collection a solid instance that ns am not to be played with. The end result was that being put in the hospital, broke jaw/nose, one me having a damaged wrist one a battery case.(333)

Besides reacting violent to various other inmates" perceived aggressiveness, prisoners in are afraid of being raped typically resort come preemptive violence in order to escape come a lock-up unit where they will certainly be protected from attack. Desperate for a deliver to more secure surroundings, together inmates intentionally act out violently prior to corrections staff. Together one described:

I was sexually struck by 4 inmates (black). I went to staff. I was transport to another unit. Ns refused to go to my housing assignment because of I was being put earlier into a life threatening condition. For this reason I began to threaten the an initial black inmate I came into contact with. Ns was placed in prehearing detention. That"s September 15, 1995. I started possessing a weapon and threatening black color inmates. That was the only way staff would keep me locked up in a solitary cell.(334)

Interestingly, also though violent behavior in prison constitutes a disciplinary infraction and can, in significant cases, result in criminal prosecution and an ext prison time, correction officials typically urge inmates to rental violence to safeguard themselves indigenous attack. Past studies have discovered that prison staff counsel detainees to respond come the threat of sexual attack by fighting the aggressor.(335) Inmates have often reported to human being Rights Watch that guards warn them, "no one is going to babysit you"--letting them recognize that they need to "act choose a man," that is, to react violently come aggressive sex-related overtures.

Another contributing variable to violence may be the acute shame that victims frequently experience. Indeed, psychiatrist and prison expert James Gilligan, explicate a concept of violence, says that shame is the major underlying cause of the problem.(336) moved by shame, men murder, rape, and also punish others. In describing prisons as abundant territory for the shame-violence relationship, Gilligan"s observations are consistent with prisoners" reports of your experiences. As one vermont inmate told human being Rights Watch, "When I come out that prison, ns remember thinking that others knew I had been raped just by looking at me. My behavior adjusted to such cold heartedness that ns resented anyone who found reason to smile, to laugh, and also to it is in happy."(337) This man later on committed rape after relax from jail in what he claimed was a kind of revenge ~ above the world. K.J., one more inmate v whom human being Rights watch is in contact, similarly believes the it was the trauma of gift raped if in jail--unrelieved by any type of psychological counseling--that led the to later on commit rape himself. "I was simply locked in shame," he said, explaining the bottom spiral that culminated in his rape of 2 women. "It seemed choose rape to be written almost everywhere my face."(338)

The anger, shame and also violence sparked by jail rape--though it might originate in the correctional setting--is i can not qualify to continue to be locked in jail upon the inmate"s release. Together one prisoner emphasized, mirroring upon correctional officials" failure to protect against several rapes in his institution:

the tougher, colder, and more cruel and inhuman a ar is, the much less chance a human being will return. This is no true. The more negative experience a human being goes through, the an ext he turns right into a violent, cruel, mean, heartless individual, I know this to be a fact.(339)

The brutal killing of James Byrd, Jr., in Jasper, Texas, spurred renewed consideration of the impact on culture of incarcerating so countless of its citizens in locations of violent sex-related abuse. Byrd, a disabled african American, was killed by 3 white men, two of whom had been exit from Texas jail the ahead year. When in prison, the 2 men obtained a deep hatred of blacks. They joined a white prison gang and covered themselves with racist tattoos. Reflecting on the sexual violence and racial conflicts that plague prisons in Texas, some commentators regarded the two guys -- and also the horrific crime they committed -- as the inventions of the jail system. In an write-up subtitled "Did the Texas penal mechanism kill James Byrd?" writer Michael Berryhill listed that the 2 men"s racism "seemed intimately tied to their sex-related fears," and that castle "seemed obsessed through asserting their masculinity and repudiating homosexuality."(340) he concluded that the hatred shown in the Jasper killing to be the predictable result of problems in the state"s prisons.

Prison reformers have a clean stake in asserting that prison abuses have a deleterious affect on the people outside the prisons, the logic being that also if the general public cares no a whit because that the experiencing of inmate victims everyone agrees ~ above the desirability of preventing abuses versus victims the end in society. Unsurprisingly, numerous reformers have asserted that protecting against sexual abuse against prisoners is imperative for pragmatic and also humanitarian reasons. According to this view, rape not only injures the victim"s dignity and sense the self, it threatens to perpetuate a bike of sexual violence.

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You take it a male who"s been raped in prison and he is walking to it is in filled through a remarkable amount the rage....Now ultimately he is going to gain out. Most world do. And also all the studies display that today"s victim is tomorrow"s predator. So by refusing to attend to this in an intelligent way, you are genuinely sentencing society to an epidemic that future rapes.(341)

The claim that jail rape begets further crimes is not universally accepted. Daniel Lockwood, a criminologist who has written extensively on the topic of prison sex-related violence, problems the notion that victim of abuse, embittered by the experience, vent your hostility top top the public once released indigenous prison.(342) He states there is "little reliable data" to support such claims, deriding the idea as a "damaging myth."

Evidently, no longitudinal studies have been carried out to specifically record the subsequent criminal background of victims of jail rape, and further empirical study would be of value. Nonetheless, that is clear that the effects of victimization space profound, and that, left come fester, the mental injury the rape leads part inmates come inflict violence top top themselves and others.

Inadequate Treatment In neglect of the supreme Court"s 1978 ruling that prisoners have the right to adequate medical care for your "serious" medical needs, numerous prisoners obtain inadequate health and wellness care, particularly mental health care. While many prison rape survivors in call with human being Rights clock say the they were listed medical therapy for any kind of physical injuries received during the assault, only a minority stated that they received the essential psychological counseling. Yet, by all accounts, rape trauma syndrome is a serious and potentially terrible psychological disorder, demanding careful and also sympathetic treatment. Indeed, one appellate court has affirmed the a prison"s fail to make adequate mental counseling accessible to rape victims violates the U.S. Constitution"s barred on cruel and unusual punishment.(343)