This exceptional bird, unmistakable in adult plumage, is the phibìc American representative that the sea-eagles, a mainly Old civilization genus. Widespread and common once Europeans arrived, this eagle ended up being the national bird that the United claims in 1792, yet did not achieve full defense until 1952 when a bounty in Alaska to be abolished. By climate the eggshell thinning impacts of organochlorine insecticides were just coming to be apparent. Limitations on the usage of this substances and also widespread re-introduction projects have led to returning the outright Eagle to numerous areas and also its future seems lot brighter 보다 at the low suggest in the 1960s and 1970s (Oberholser 1874, Buehler 2000).

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DISTRIBUTION. During the 1987-1992 field work seasons of the TBBA project, volunteers discovered 131 confirmed breeding records, mostly in the coastal Prairies, southern Pineywoods and also northern seaside Sand level regions (see the an ar map in Lockwood and also Freeman <2004>). The farthest north areas were follow me the Red flow in quadrangles 33094, 33096 and also 33097, v the most westerly near the intersection of the 30th parallel and also the 98th meridian. The southernmost record was in quad 28097 near the coast.

Elsewhere fully Eagles breed from main Alaska and the Aleutian Islands across Canada come Newfoundland and south in scattered locations across the 48 contiguous united States. Plenty of eagles move south or to open water in winter month (Buehler 2000, Sauer et al. 2005). Young birds can disperse substantial distances; a bird banded in a colony on the Texas coast, was found as a breeding adult in Arizona (Lockwood and also Freeman 2004).

SEASONAL CCURRENCE. Non-breeding and breeding populations show significant overlap, both temporally and spatially. Fully Eagles come in Texas as early as august 6, with the largest population present from early October to so late May. Reproduction extends from so late October to early on May (occasionally to July), based on egg dated from November 6 to June 20 (Oberholser 1974, Lockwood and Freeman 2004).

BREEDING HABITAT. Fully Eagles breed in Texas from close to sea level to about 1100 m (3600 ft; Oberholser 1974) in and also around huge aquatic environments (ocean coasts, reservoirs, big lakes and also rivers, marshes and also swamps). Below they scavenge or stealing dead fish, or if essential prey ~ above dead or living birds, mammals or reptiles (Buehler 2000).

Most nests recorded in Oklahoma were follow me the Arkansas river (Jenkins 2004). An in similar way in Colorado almost 70% of breeding records came from riparian locations (Winternitz 1998) and also in Arizona this birds colony near lakes, reservoirs and also perennial rivers (Driscoll 2005).

Nests are enormous piles that sticks, branches and human debris put in the crown that a large tree or on an inaccessible cliff ledge. They may be used year after year or additionally with another nest. An ext material is included each year for this reason structures may reach 2.4-3 m (8-10 ft) across and sometimes loss of their own weight. Both sexes develop the nest and line it through twigs, grass and also moss. The female usually lays 2 (range 1-3) dull white eggs over 3-6 days. Incubation, greatly by the female, starts after the first egg is laid and continues for around 35 days. The young spend 8-14 weeks in the nest prior to attaining flight and then another 4-10 weeks with their parental (Harrison 1979, Buehler 2000).

STATUS. Outright Eagles as soon as bred additional west and north in Texas 보다 they right now do. Oberholser’s (1974) map shows reproduction locations in the north Panhandle in Potter and also Armstrong counties. TBBA observers and Patrikeev (2007) did not discover Bald Eagles reproduction in this area. Lockwood and Freeman (2004) report around 140 nesting pairs of fully Eagles currently present in Texas.

Text by Robert C. Tweit (2007)


Literature cited.

American Ornithologists’ Union. 1998. Checklist of phibìc American birds, 7th ed. Am, Ornithol. Union, Washington, DC.

Buehler, D. A. 2000. Fully Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). InThe bird of north America, No. 506 (A. Poole and also F. Gill, eds.). The bird of north America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.

Driscoll, J, T. 2005. Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). In Arizona reproduction Bird Atlas. Pp. 126-127 (T. E. Corman and also C. Wise-Gervais, eds.), university of new Mexico Press, Albuquerque.

Jenkins, M. A. 2004. Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). In Oklahoma breeding Bird Atlas, pp. 90-91 (D. L. Reinking, ed.). College of Oklahoma Press, Norman.

Harrison, H. H. 1979. A field guide to western birds’ nests. Houghton Mifflin, Boston, MA.

Lockwood, M. W. And B. Freeman. 2004. The TOS handbook that Texas birds. Texas A&M college Press, college Station.

Oberholser, H. C. 1974. The bird life that Texas, university of Texas Press, Austin.

Patrikeev, M. 2007. Breeding birds that Lake Meredith nationwide Recreation Area and Alibates Flint Quarries national Monument. Bull. Texas Ornithol. Soc. 40: 1-14.

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Sauer, J. R., J. E. Hines, and also J. Fallon. 2005. The north American breeding Bird Survey, outcomes and evaluation 1966-2005. Version 6.2 2006. USGS Patuxent Wildlife research Center, Laurel MD

Winternitz, B. L. 1998. Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). In Colorado reproduction Bird Atlas, pp. 108-109 (H. E. Kingery, ed.), Colorado Bird Atlas Partnership, Denver.