we are currently in the center of the longest-running government shutdown in American history. Through 22 full days under as of Sunday January 13, and also no clear finish in sight, the 2018-’19 shutdown has actually outlasted 1995’s (which finished after 21 days), previously the longest by a large margin.

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The partial shutdown started on December 22, 2018, through President Donald Trump’s need for $5 exchange rate to pay for his much-promised full-length border wall with Mexico, and while both parties in Congress had floated $1.6 billion together a compromise, trump rejected it. His $5 billion isn’t sufficient for a full wall, however would block turn off 215 additional miles the are right now unfenced (in addition to the 120 mile the management is at this time building v existing funds). Many recently Democrats offered a security package that would keep current capital levels because that border security, i beg your pardon Trump rejected out of hand.

In the meantime, part 420,000 federal workers room working there is no pay; one more 380,000 space furloughed there is no pay; taxes refunds can be delayed; and payments for Women and Infant kids (WIC) can soon be reduced for absence of funds.

Government shutdowns are familiar to most Americans, yet they’re a relatively recent development. They first began together the result of the Congressional spending plan Act the 1974. Due to the fact that then, Congress has actually failed to authorize funding for the federal federal government on 21 different occasions.

The an initial six that those didn’t actually affect the to work of federal government at all. The wasn’t until a collection of opinions approve by Attorney general Benjamin Civiletti in 1980 and ’81 the the federal government started treating “funding gaps”— periods when Congress has actually failed to allocate funds because that the ongoing functions of federal government — together necessitating the complete or partial shutdown of government agencies.

Here room all 20 funding gaps prior to the existing one, and also why they happened. When not otherwise cited, the explanations listed below come courtesy the this useful piece by part dude named Dylan Matthews.

Shutdown 1: September 30 to October 11, 1976

President: Gerald Ford

Senate: Democrats (62-38), bulk Leader Mike Mansfield

House: Democrats (291-144), speaker Carl Albert

Why: Ford vetoed a capital bill for the departments of Labor and also Health, Education, and also Welfare (which has since been split into the room of Education and also the room of Health and Human Services). That alone didn’t cause a funding gap because Democrats swiftly overrode his veto, but it took until October 11 because that Congress to pass a proceeding resolution capital the rest of the government, whose funding had lapsed between the HEW/Labor resources fight.

Shutdown 2: September 30 come October 13, 1977

President: Jimmy Carter

Senate: democracy (59-41), bulk Leader Robert Byrd

House: democracy (292-143), Speaker pointer O’Neill

Why: The Senate wanted to ease restrictions on the usage of medical allowance dollars come cover abortions (restrictions well-known informally as “the Hyde Amendment”), by permitting funding in instances of rape, incest, and when the health of the mom is in danger; at the time, just abortions crucial to save the life that the mommy were funded. The House, however, insisted on keeping the stricter ban.

The worry was addressed in amendments come a bill resources the Labor and HEW departments. The two houses couldn’t agree to a deal by the September 30 deadline, prompting a capital gap at the 2 departments. The gap finished when congress agreed to punting the abortion problem to October 31.

Shutdown 3: October 31 to November 9, 1977

President: Jimmy Carter

Senate: democrats (59-41), majority Leader Robert Byrd

House: democrats (292-143), Speaker reminder O’Neill

Why: Punting the abortion dispute didn’t work! It come back. This gap finished when Carter signed yet an additional short-term extension.

Shutdown 4: November 30 come December 9, 1977

President: Jimmy Carter

Senate: democrats (59-41), majority Leader Robert Byrd

House: democracy (292-143), Speaker tip O’Neill

Why: congress still didn’t agree ~ above abortion funding. But the conflict was ultimately resolved and funding extended to cases of rape, incest, and mother’s health. 4 years later, once Reagan take it office, that funding was once again taken away.

Shutdown 5: September 30 to October 18, 1978

President: Jimmy Carter

Senate: democrats (59-41), bulk Leader Robert Byrd

House: democracy (292-143), Speaker guideline O’Neill

Why: The an initial Carter shutdown not about abortion! Well, no entirely around it; that did aspect into a dispute around HEW funding. But past that, Carter vetoed a defense security bill due to the fact that it funded a nuclear-powered aircraft carrier he taken into consideration wasteful, and a public functions bill due to the fact that of projects he considered pork. Carter eventually prevailed, and funding because that the carrier and also the projects he opposed to be stripped. The rape/incest/mother’s health exceptions on abortion to be retained.

Shutdown 6: September 30 to October 12, 1979

President: Jimmy Carter

Senate: democrats (58-42), majority Leader Robert Byrd

House: democracy (277-158), Speaker guideline O’Neill

Why: Abortion, again — the home wanted to return to only permitting one exception, for the mummy life, and also the Senate wanted to maintain a looser standard. The House likewise wanted higher pay for congressional and also civil organization staff. It acquired that change enacted yet had to accept resources for abortions in the case of rape and incest (but not when the mother’s wellness is in ~ risk).

Shutdown 7: November 20 to 23, 1981

President: Ronald Reagan

Senate: republicans (53-47), majority Leader Howard Baker

House: democrats (244-191), Speaker reminder O’Neill

Why: This to be the an initial shutdown, in the existing sense of the term, once federal government functions were serious curtailed. Reagan furloughed 241,000 commonwealth workers, the very first time a capital gap had actually led come so major a palliation in the commonwealth government’s operations. Reagan had demanded $8.4 billion in domestic spending cuts and also promised to veto any type of bill the didn’t incorporate at least half of the amount in cuts. The Senate to be willing to comply, however the house insisted on bigger defense cuts and on pay boosts for itself and also the civil service.

The 2 branches got to a deal that fell $2 billion short of Reagan’s threshold, so he vetoed the deal and shut under the government. The shutdown ended quickly after conference passed a continuing resolution because that a tiny less than a month, providing them time to negotiate.

Shutdown 8: September 30 come October 2, 1982

President: Ronald Reagan

Senate: republic (53-47), majority Leader Howard Baker

House: democracy (244-191), Speaker reminder O’Neill

Why: This one precise happened due to the fact that Reagan and also Congress had social engagements and also forgot to store funds flow in the meantime. Ns swear come God. Here’s Martin Tolchin writing in the brand-new York Times:

Congress missed the deadline tonight for action on a catch-all security bill necessary to finance the federal government in the next two and also a half months, also though House and also Senate conferees adopted a weaken measure resolving differences in the law approved by every chamber.

The House and also Senate will not act on the measure until Friday. Congressional leaders barred a late-night session because of major social occasions tonight by both Republicans and also Democrats. Chairman Reagan invited all members of conference to a barbecue in ~ the White House, while democracy were having a $1,000-a-plate fund-raising dinner.

Shutdown 9: December 17 come 21, 1982

President: Ronald Reagan

Senate: republic (53-47), bulk Leader Howard Baker

House: democracy (244-191), Speaker reminder O’Neill

Why: This dispute came to money both the House and also Senate want for a windy works tasks program, which Reagan intimidated to veto. The House also wanted come block capital for the MX and also Pershing II missile programs, i m sorry were significant defense concerns for Reagan. Reagan grudgingly signed a resources bill the didn’t fund the missiles, enhanced foreign assist to Israel past the level that requested, and included funding because that the Legal solutions Corporation, which uses civil legal services to bad Americans and which Reagan had actually wanted to eliminate.

Shutdown 10: November 10 to 14, 1983

President: Ronald Reagan

Senate: republicans (55-45), bulk Leader Howard Baker

House: democrats (271-164), Speaker pointer O’Neill

Why: A selection of concerns this time: house Democrats wanted an ext education funding, more aid for Israel and also Egypt, less assist to Syria and also El Salvador, and less defense spending 보다 Reagan did. The 2 parties got to a weaken in which the MX missile was funded, and Democrats acquired a lot less money because that education and secured your defense and foreign cuts, along with a half on oil and gas drilling top top federal animal refuges.

Shutdown 11: September 30 come October 3, 1984

President: Ronald Reagan

Senate: republic (55-45), bulk Leader Howard Baker

House: democrats (270-165), Speaker guideline O’Neill

Why: Reagan want a crime bill; house Democrats want water projects and also a law reversing a current Supreme Court decision allowing exemptions from title IX that the Civil rights Act for colleges the didn’t obtain federal resources directly but whose college student did. Reagan didn’t like the last two provisions, and a three-day spending extension was passed to give more time to negotiate after ~ the funding gap.

Shutdown 12: October 3 to 5, 1984

President: Ronald Reagan

Senate: republicans (55-45), majority Leader Howard Baker

House: democracy (270-165), Speaker tip O’Neill

Why: three days wasn’t long enough! and also this time, 500,000 employees were furloughed. Ultimately, the democracy relented on every three problems — the crime bill, the civil legal rights bill, and also the water jobs — and even acquiesced to temporary resources for Nicaragua’s anti-communist Contra guerrillas.

Shutdown 13: October 16 come 18, 1986

President: Ronald Reagan

Senate: republic (53-47), majority Leader Bob Dole

House: democracy (253-182), Speaker guideline O’Neill

Why: home Democrats to be pushing a variety of White House-opposed provisions, including growth of assist to households With dependency Children, the name used at the moment for welfare. They were promised a vote on the welfare expansion and a concession relating to the government’s privatization that the railway Conrail, and also in exchange pass a funding bill. About 500,000 workers were furloughed for fifty percent a day.

Shutdown 14: December 18 come 20, 1987

President: Ronald Reagan

Senate: democrats (54-46), majority Leader Robert Byrd

House: democracy (258-177), speaker Jim Wright

Why: Congressional Democrats to be resisting further funding for the Contras in Nicaragua, and insisted ~ above reinstating the same Doctrine, a Federal communications Commission rule that had actually recently to be abandoned, which compelled broadcasters to show balanced perspectives on politics issues. Democrats lost on the fairness Doctrine, and also agreed to “nonlethal” assist to the Contras.

Shutdown 15: October 5 to 9, 1990

President: George H.W. Bush

Senate: democrats (55-45), majority Leader George Mitchell

House: democrats (258-176), speak Tom Foley

Why: Bush pledged come veto any continuing resolution the did not come through a arrangement to minimize the deficit. The home tried to override his veto and also failed, forcing a shutdown in which millions of workers were furloughed. The House and also Senate agreed to a joint budget resolution outlining a declining deficit, and Bush signed a proceeding resolution.

Shutdown 16: November 13 come 19, 1995

President: invoice Clinton

Senate: republic (53-47), bulk Leader Bob Dole

House: republic (233-199), speak Newt Gingrich

Why: Gingrich and also Dole sent out Clinton a proceeding resolution including hikes come Medicare premiums, rollbacks of environmental regulations, and also a requirement to balance the spending plan within 7 years. Clinton vetoed it, and also the government got in shutdown. The shutdown finished with a deal amongst the 3 leaders to fund the federal government at 75 percent levels for four weeks so that negotiations might keep going. Clinton acceded come the seven-year balanced budget requirement. Around 800,000 employees to be furloughed.

Shutdown 17: December 16, 1995, come January 6, 1996

President: bill Clinton

Senate: republic (53-47), bulk Leader Bob Dole

House: republicans (235-198), speaker Newt Gingrich

Why: This shutdown, which lasted the far better part the a month, to be all about whether come use financial forecasts indigenous the Congressional budget Office or the Office that Management and Budget to identify whether the White House’s budget arrangement would balance. The CBO was much more cautious, and also projected that Clinton would certainly still have actually a $115 exchange rate deficit in 7 years under his plan. Republicans eventually caved after ~ 21 days, and also Clinton climate proposed a setup that the CBO agreed well balanced the budget. Part 284,000 workers were furloughed, in the longest shutdown in history.

Shutdown 18: October 1 come 17, 2013

President: Barack Obama

Senate: democrats (54-46), bulk Leader harry Reid

House: republic (232-200), Speaker man Boehner

Why: Ted Cruz, basically. While home Republicans, led by Boehner, had actually pressured the White home into agreeing to reduced levels the discretionary spending, and also conservatives in the residence led by Rep. Tom tombs (R-GA) request that any funding bill hold-up implementation that Obamacare through a year. It was collection to roll out the complying with year, and conservatives, many vocally led by Cruz and Heritage Action, were desperate to avoid it prior to it acquired beneficiaries who might defend that politically. Enough House conservatives got on board through the setup to do it difficult to happen a continuing resolution, and also the federal government shut down.

After 17 days, Boehner folded and also passed a resources bill the did not defund Obamacare and also that many of his caucus opposed. Around 850,000 workers, or about 40 percent of the federal workforce, were furloughed.

Shutdown 19: January 20 come 22, 2018

President: Donald Trump

Senate: Republicans (51-49), bulk Leader Mitch McConnell

House: Republicans (238-193), speaker Paul Ryan

Why: This one to be over immigration. As gendergeek.org’s Andrew Prokop described at the time, Democrats, spurred top top by outside activists, wanted to force the Trump management and congress to protect beneficiaries that DACA (Deferred activity for Childhood Arrival), i beg your pardon barred deportation the unauthorized immigrants who pertained to the united state as kids, ~ the Trump management decided to finish the program. Due to the fact that Democrats easily had enough votes to filibuster a resources bill in the Senate, lock (and a grasp of Republican senators who additionally voted no) were able to block a bill doing not have protections for DACA recipients and force a shutdown.

But they folded fairly quickly ~ that, agreeing to fund the government (and the Children’s health Insurance Program, i beg your pardon was likewise up because that renewal) after majority Leader McConnell promised to host a poll on an immigration bill.

Shutdown 20: February 9, 2018

President: Donald Trump

Senate: Republicans (51-49), bulk Leader Mitch McConnell

House: Republicans (238-193), speak Paul Ryan

Why: The second shutdown that the trump card years to be a rand Paul special. Indeed, calling that a “shutdown” is type of generous, together it only lasted a couple of hours and mostly connected Paul forcing his colleagues to continue to be until almost 6 in the morning.

But in any case, Paul was angry the congressional leaders had negotiated a deal to exceed budget plan caps adopted as part of the 2011 fiscal cliff deal. Most Republicans accepted the transaction as a crucial price the getting higher defense spending, but Paul, among the most dovish republicans in the chamber, is a fierce movie critic of defense security too.

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So Paul filibustered the bill, delaying i to 5:30 am and also technically resulting in a brief shutdown, also though over there were conveniently enough votes in the Senate to happen the bill.