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Born:February 16, 1941SiberiaRussia...(Show more)Died:December 17, 2011 (aged 70)...(Show more)Political Affiliation:Korean Workers’ Party...(Show more)Notable family Members:father Kim Il-Sungdaughter Kim Yo-Jongson Kim Jong-Unson Kim Jong-Nam...(Show more)
Kim Jong Il, also spelled Kim Chong Il, (born February 16, 1941, Siberia, Russia, U.S.S.R.—died December 17, 2011), North korean politician, son of the previous North oriental premier and also (communist) oriental Workers’ Party (KWP) chairman Kim Il-Sung, and successor to his father as leader (1994–2011) of north Korea.
The main North oriental version of Kim Jong Il’s life, various from the biography documented elsewhere, states that he was born in ~ a guerrilla base camp on mount Paektu, the highest suggest on the korean peninsula; it qualities many precocious abilities come him; and also it claims his birth was accompanied by together auspicious indications as the appearance of a dual rainbow in the sky. Throughout the oriental War (1950–53) that was put in safety and security in northeastern China (Manchuria) by his father, although the main biography go not point out the episode. After ~ attending a pilots’ training university in eastern Germany for 2 years, he graduated in 1963 native Kim Il-Sung University. He offered in many routine short articles in the KWP before coming to be his father’s secretary. That worked closely with his dad in the 1967 party purge and also then to be assigned several necessary jobs. Kim was appointed in September 1973 to the an effective position the party secretary in charge of organization, propaganda, and also agitation.
Kim Il-Sung passed away on July 8, 1994, and also his son Kim Jong Il succeeded him. However, the did no assume the short articles of secretary-general...
Kim was officially designated his father’s successor in October 1980, was given command that the equipped forces in 1990–91, and also held high-ranking articles on the central Committee, in the Politburo, and also in the Party Secretariat. As soon as Kim Il-Sung died of a heart attack in 1994, Kim Jong Il became North Korea’s de facto leader. He was called chairman the the KWP in October 1997, and in September 1998 the formally presume the country’s highest post. Since the position of president had actually been removed by the can be fried People’s Assembly, which reserved for Kim Il-Sung the posthumous title of “eternal president,” the younger Kim to be reelected chairman that the nationwide Defense Commission, an office who powers to be expanded.
During his management of the country, Kim constructed on the mystique currently surrounding his father and also himself. Conflicting details circulated regarding his personal life, many of the unreliable and—perhaps deliberately—serving to add to the mystery. It was known that Kim took an attention in the arts and encouraged greater creativity in literature and also film, although the commodities remained primarily propaganda tools. A popular film buff, Kim top a movie studio prior to ascending to the country’s leadership. It produced works celebrating socialist values, Kim Il-Sung and his national policy of independence (juche), and, later, Kim Jong Il himself and his “military first” (sŏngun chŏngch’i) policy. As part of his desire to create far better films, in the so late 1970s the younger Kim had a South korean film director, Shin Sang-Ok, and also his wife, actress Choi Eun-Hee, abducted to the North, where they to be pressed into company until their 1986 escape.
After ending up being North Korea’s leader, and with his nation facing a struggling economy and also a famine, Kim make moves toward amending phibìc Korea’s long-standing policy of isolationism. Transparent the so late 1990s and also early 21st century, Kim sought to enhance ties through a variety of countries. In addition, he appeared to it is in abiding through the terms of a 1994 commitment (called the i agree Framework) through the United states in which phibìc Korea would dismantle its own nuclear regime in return for arranging because that the building and construction by an external party of 2 nuclear reactors capable of developing electric power. South Korea to be the major contractor top top the project.
Kim halted testing of a long-range missile in 1999 ~ the United says agreed to ease its economic sanctions versus North Korea, and also in June 2000 Kim met with South korean leader Kim Dae-Jung. In what was the very first summit between leaders that the 2 countries, an agreement was got to to take procedures toward reunification. Ties were also established v Australia and also Italy.
South korean President Kim Dae-Jung (left) v North oriental leader Kim Jong Il in P"yŏngyang, phibìc Korea, ~ above June 15, 2000, after concluding a three-day summit.
At the exact same time, however, the i agree Framework started falling personal in the challenge of north Korea’s prove reluctance to adhere come its terms. Connections with the United says deteriorated significantly in 2002, ~ U.S. Pres. George W. Bush characterized Kim’s regime (along v Iran and Iraq) as component of an “axis of evil.” It was suspected the North Korea was enriching uranium at among the nuclear infrastructure whose tasks were supposedly frozen by the terms of the i agree Framework. In January 2003 Kim announced the North Korea was pulling the end of the atom Non-proliferation Treaty and also planning to build nuclear weapons.
North Korea’s atom status continued to be an worldwide issue. Kim’s program was widely seen as using it together a negotiating allude to secure economic help and come deter the escalation of stress with southern Korea, which to be ongoing. In October 2006 the nation announced that it had conducted an underground check of together a weapon. Talks to be suspended for numerous years, but another deal was struck in 2007; the verification of north Korea’s compliance, however, continued to be unsettled. The December 2007 election of Lee Myung-Bak together South korean president began an additional deterioration in inter-Korean connections as Lee take it a more tough line with his North oriental counterpart. End the next few years phibìc Korea conducted occasional tools tests, consisting of a 2nd underground nuclear test in may 2009. Relations between North and also South got to a crisis point several times—notably in 2010, through the sinking of the South oriental warship Ch’ŏnan (Cheonan) close to the naval border in March and also a November armed forces skirmish top top Yŏnpyŏng (Yeongpyeong) Island, in the same area, that killed two South korean marines.
In 2008 speculation started that Kim’s wellness was deteriorating; after ~ his absence from public watch for number of months, it was suspected the he had actually suffered a stroke. The adhering to year Kim and also the North korean political establishment started a collection of moves reportedly toward designating Kim’s youngest son, Kim Jong-Un, together his successor.
North oriental state media announced on December 19, 2011, that Kim had died on a train 2 days earlier.
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