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When was theBattle the fought?

The fight of began on Wednesday, July first 1863. The very first shots were fired northwest that town early on in the morning as progressing Confederates ran right into Union cavalry pickets, although precisely when and where has actually been a issue of intense debate.

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It ongoing until Friday, July 3rd, with the repulse the Pickett’s Charge and Stuart’s effort to drive around Meade’s flank and also into his rear. Each of the three days witnessed intense fighting in and around the city.

The militaries remained encountering each various other on the field on July 4th. There to be minor skirmishing and some casualties but it did no escalate into major fighting, and also it is not normally considered part of the battle. Lee’s army began that is retreat to Virginia ~ dark ~ above the 4th.

Where was theBattle that gendergeek.orgfought?

The battle of took place roughly, Pennsylvania, a tiny crossroads city in southerly Pennsylvania around 8 mile north the the Maryland border. The is the center hub that a network of roads feeding in from all angle of the compass. was also the finish of a railroad line from Hanover, but it had been wrecked by Confederate troops.’s roadway network and its place on the east side the the hills were important determinants in why the battle was dealt with there. So to be the terrain, which included great defensive ground such as small Round Top, Culp’s Hill, and also Cemetery Hill.

* was the hub of a network of roads

The roads to (listed clockwise)

Chambersburg Pike, or Cashtown Road(now U.S. 30)Mummasburg RoadNewville road (now Middletown Road)Carlisle RoadHarrisburg (or Heidlersburg) Road(now Bus. U.S. 15)Hunterstown RoadYork road (now U.S. 30)Hanover road (now PA. 116)Baltimore Pike (now PA. 97)Taneytown roadway (now PA. 134)Emmitsburg roadway (now Bus. U.S. 15)Fairfield (or Hagerstown) Road(now PA. 116)

How close is to locations like Washington, Richmond and also Philadelphia?
Distances indigenous is:25 mile from Chambersburg28 mile from York30 miles from Hagerstown, Md.32 mile from Frederick, Md.35 mile from Harrisburg38 mile from the potomac River in ~ Williamsport, Md.40 mile from the Susquehanna river at Columbia, Pa.50 miles from Baltimore, Md.71 mile from Washington D.C.110 miles from Fredericksburg, Va. Utilizing the route taken by many of the military of the Potomac112 miles from Philadelphia, Pa.172 mile from Richmond, Va.175 miles from Fredericksburg via the Shenandoah Valley, as marched by many of the army of northern Virginia195 miles from new York City

Who fought at

What were the staminas of the militaries that fought in the fight of

The ConfederateArmy of north Virginia70,100 men and also 280 gunsCommanded by general Robert E. Lee

The FederalArmy that the Potomac93,700 men and 372 gunsCommanded byMajor basic George G. Meade

The militaries at the battle of had regiments and also batteries from 12 Southern and 18 northern states. Both armies had devices from Maryland. See more details inthe states at

The Federal military of the Potomac had actually an benefit in numbers of practically 24,000 men, helped by a last-minute transfer of over 10,000 men from the rear-area forces approximately Washington and Baltimore.

Compare thestrength of the corps and also divisionsof thearmies in ~

How plenty of casualties were there in the battle of to be the bloodiest fight of the civil War. That is approximated that there to be at the very least 45,000 and also possibly as countless as 51,000 casualties in the two armies at

How many people died at

Note the the hatchet “casualties” means not just civilization who to be killed, but additionally includes men who to be wounded (many of whom may have passed away of your wounds later), soldiers that were captured, and also even males who ran away. It’s impossible to calculate an accurate number because of missing or incomplete records. This estimate is among the an ext conservative and also probably significantly understates Confederate lacking and wounded:

Union3,150 14,500 5,16522,815



Were any civilians eliminated in the battle of

Hundreds that civilians sheltered in their homes as the fighting raged roughly them and also one, John Burns, joined the fight and was wounded. Yet while a variety of civilians died from the illness the fight brought to town and also several were eliminated by unexploded ordnance afterwards, just one civilian, Jennie Wade, was killed throughout the actual battle of She was struck through a stray shoot while at home in a house on the southern side of town caring because that a ailing relative.

Who winner the battle of

The battle of was a decisive win for the Union.

Tactically the may have seemed about even. Both armies lost about the same number of men. Lee retained his army on the ar until the night of the work after the battle, wait for a counterattack by Meade which never came. However Meade’s larger army could far better afford the accident – every eight the Lee’s infantry departments lost around a third of their strength, when Meade’s largest military Corps was basically untouched. Lee was practically out of pho ammunition, if Meade had sufficient for one more battle. And Meade had actually no should throw himself into a attention counterattack. Time was on his side as Union reinforcements moved to surround Lee, deep in enemy territory through no expect of reinforcement.

Both militaries were badly hurt. The Union 1st and 3rd Corps never ever recovered from your casualties and also were merged into other corps in march of 1864. Pickett’s division was therefore damaged it to be detached indigenous Longstreet and sent come a quiet(er) sector along the Virginia-North Carolina border to recruit and also recover. But the Union could more readily uncover fresh recruits, if Lee would increasingly struggle through a shortage of men, specifically of field and also general officers.

Strategically there to be no question. The battle of stopped the Confederate invasion of the North and forced Lee to withdraw to Virginia. He prospered in his second goal the gathering gives from untouched northern regions, yet his score of moving the fighting out of war-ravaged Virginia just lasted because that a few weeks. By respectable the militaries had went back to their beginning places along the Rappahannock River. Lee’s major goal of exploiting a Confederate win by pursuing and destroying a beaten Union military would remain an elusive dream.

Did the fight of finish the polite War? was not the end of the war. Much from it. The polite War began with the bombardment of ft Sumter ~ above April 12, 1861, 26 months prior to the fight in ~ Lee’s surrender at Appomattox Court house was ~ above April 9, 1865, 21 months after the battle. The Confederate room of the Trans-Mississippi did no surrender until may 26, 1865, 23 month after was virtually exactly the midpoint the the war.


What was the prestige of the battle of

At the start of the campaign both militaries were separated by the Rappahannock flow in Virginia. The North had attacked across the flow twice, in the fight of Fredericksburg (December 1862) and also the Battle of Chancellorsville (May 1863). Both were Confederate victories, although both times the North was able to withdraw back throughout the river and safely rebuild.

Lee’s problem

Lee knew he could not simply sit southern of the river and throw back Northern attacks. His army could not change its casualties when the phibìc could, meaning he would grow ever weaker in comparison. Continuing to be in one location had actually stripped the nearby area that food, forage and also firewood, and the southern rail system can not supply his military properly. Already he had actually been compelled to disperse his hungry artillery steeds away native the army to save them alive, limiting his mobility in an emergency. And Lee knew that some day the North could find the win combination.

Lee’s plan

Lee’s setup was to take it the battle to the north in a move up the Shenandoah Valley. This would let the farmers there harvest their plants for the Confederacy, when Lee’s military could forage in the rich and also untouched lands of Pennsylvania. It would certainly threaten Union urban such as Baltimore, Harrisburg and Philadelphia. And it would give Lee a opportunity to fight and win a battle in the open, where he could finally pursue and possibly damage the win enemy. Lee experienced it together the best method to end the war prior to the south was trapped in an unwinnable fight of attrition.

Lee preserved the plan all v the battle, launching major attacks each day. However by the evening on July 3rd he had reached the end of his strength. His military had lost heavy casualties and he was critically short on ammunition, specifically artillery. He to be well into Union territory where reinforcements would certainly not be available, when Meade’s pressure was quickly growing. He pulled back into a solid defensive heat on the 4th, hope Meade would attack and also spend himself the means Lee had actually for 3 days, however Meade refuse to climb to the bait. Lee’s only selection was to return to Virginia.

The results

The battle of is thought about a turning point. Although the did no involve the largest number of troops the battle had the highest possible casualties of any battle of the civil War. Up till then Lee might have to be able to success the war with a stunning win that compelled the phibìc to concede defeat. After that the best he can hope for was to do the North’s win so i have lot of money they would offer up in exhaustion. Lee’s hefty losses in guys and specifically officers would certainly be a difficulty for the remainder of the war. And for the rest of the war Lee to be on the strategic defensive, forced into the battle of attrition he feared, and also eventually cornered in an unwinnable siege around Richmond.

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Unusual Facts

See an ext facts, some rather unusual, about the greatest battle of the civil War.