When Hillary Clinton was chosen to the U.S. Senate in 2001, she became the an initial American an initial lady to success a publicly office seat. In 2016, she ended up being the first woman in U.S. History to come to be the presidential nominee of a major political party.

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Who Is Hillary Clinton?

Hillary Clinton to be born in Chicago and went on come earn she law level from Yale University. She married other law institution graduate Bill Clinton in 1975. She later on served as an initial lady indigenous 1993 to 2001, and then together a U.S. Senator from 2001 come 2009. In at an early stage 2007, Clinton announced her plans to operation for the presidency. Throughout the 2008 democratic primaries, she conceded the nomination as soon as it became evident that Barack Obama organized a bulk of the delegate vote. After ~ winning the nationwide election, Obama appointed Clinton secretary that state. She to be sworn in as component of his room in January 2009 and also served until 2013. In the feather of 2015, she announced her plans to operation again because that the U.S. Presidency. In 2016, she became the very first woman in U.S. History to become the presidential nominee the a significant political party. After a polarizing campaign against GOP candidate Donald Trump, Clinton was beat in the general election the November.

Early Life

Hillary was born Hillary Diane Rodham on October 26, 1947, in Chicago, Illinois. She was increased in Park Ridge, Illinois, a it s as beautiful as picture suburb located 15 mile northwest the downtown Chicago.

Hillary was the eldest daughter the Hugh Rodham, a prosperous cloth store owner, and also Dorothy Emma Howell Rodham; she has two younger brothers, Hugh Jr. (born in 1950) and Anthony (born in 1954).

As a young woman, Hillary was energetic in young Republican groups and campaigned for Republican presidential nominee Barry Goldwater in 1964. She was influenced to work-related in public service after hearing a decided in Chicago by the Reverend martin Luther King Jr., and also became a Democrat in 1968.

Education and also Early Career

Hillary to visit Wellesley College, whereby she was energetic in student politics and elected an elderly class president prior to graduating in 1969. She then attended Yale regulation School, wherein she met invoice Clinton. Graduating through honors in 1973, she go on to enroll at Yale boy Study Center, whereby she took process on children and also medicine and also completed one post-graduate year that study.

Hillary functioned at various jobs during her summers as a university student. In 1971, she an initial came come Washington, D.C. To work-related on U.S. City council Walter Mondale's sub-committee on migrant workers. In the summer that 1972, she worked in the western says for the project of democratic presidential nominee George McGovern.

In the spring of 1974, Hillary came to be a member the the presidential impeachment inquiry staff, advising the Judiciary Committee of the house of Representatives throughout the Watergate Scandal. 

After president Richard M. Nixon resigned in August, she ended up being a faculty member that the university of Arkansas legislation School in Fayetteville, where her Yale legislation School classmate and also boyfriend bill was teaching as well.

Marriage to bill Clinton

Hillary married invoice on October 11, 1975, at their residence in Fayetteville. Before he propose marriage, Bill had actually secretly to buy a small house the she had actually remarked that she liked. Once he proposed marriage to her and also she accepted, he revealed the they own the house. Their daughter, Chelsea Victoria, was born on February 27, 1980. 

In 1976, Clinton functioned on Jimmy Carter's successful project for president her husband Clinton was chosen attorney general. Bill was chosen governor in 1978 at age 32, lost reelection in 1980, but came earlier to success in 1982, 1984, 1986 (when the term of office was increased from two to four years) and 1990.

Clinton joined the Rose law Firm in small Rock and, in 1977, to be appointed to part-time chairman the the Legal solutions Corporation by chairman Carter. As first lady of the state because that a dozen year (1979-1981, 1983-1992), she chaired the Arkansas Educational standards Committee, co-founded the Arkansas supporters for Children and also Families, and served ~ above the plank of the Arkansas Children's Hospital, Arkansas legal Services and the Children's Defense Fund. She also served top top the boards of TCBY and also Wal-Mart.

In 1988 and 1991, The National legislation Journal called her among the 100 most an effective lawyers in America.


First Lady

During her husband's 1992 presidential campaign, Clinton emerged together a dynamic and valued partner of her husband, and also as president, he called her to head the Task pressure on National wellness Reform (1993). The controversial commission created a complicated plan which never concerned the floor of one of two people house. It was exit in September 1994.

During this period, she and also her husband invested in the Whitewater real estate project. The project's bank, Morgan Guaranty Savings and Loan, failed, costing the federal government $73 million. Whitewater later came to be the subject of congressional hearings and also an independent counsel investigation.

In 1998, the White house was engulfed in the Monica Lewinsky sex scandal. Though she publicly sustained her husband, Hillary reportedly thought about leaving she marriage. He to be impeached, but the U.S. Senate failed to convict and also he remained in office.

Senate Win and Presidential Run

In 1999, Clinton decided she would look for the U.S. Senate chair from new York held by Daniel Patrick Moynihan, that was retiring after 4 terms. Regardless of early problems and also charges the carpetbagging, Clinton beat renowned Republican rick Lazio by a surprisingly broad margin: 55 percent come 43 percent. Clinton became the very first wife of a chairman to seek and win publicly office and also the an initial woman to be chosen to the U.S. Senate from brand-new York. She easily won reelection in November 2006.

In beforehand 2007, Clinton announced her plans to strive for one more first—to it is in the very first female president. During the 2008 autonomous primaries, councilor Clinton conceded the nomination once it became evident that nominee Barack Obama held a bulk of the delegate vote. When Clinton suspended her campaign, she do a speech to her supporters. "Although we were not able to shatter the highest and also hardest glass ceiling this time, thanks to friend it has actually 18 million crack in it," she said, "and the irradiate is shining through like never before, filling us all v the hope and also the sure knowledge that the course will it is in a tiny easier next time, and we room going to store working to do it so, today keep with me and also stand because that me, us still have so much to do together, us made history, and also lets make part more."

U.S. Secretary that State

Shortly after winning the U.S. Presidential election, Obama nominated Clinton together secretary the state. She embraced the nomination and also was officially approved together the 67th U.S. Secretary of state by the Senate on January 21, 2009.

During her term, Clinton used her place to make women's rights and human rights a main talking suggest of U.S. Initiatives. She came to be one of the most traveled secretaries that state in American history, and promoted the usage of social media come convey the country's positions. She additionally led U.S. Diplomatic initiatives in link to the Arab Spring and also military treatment in Libya.

The State Department, under Clinton's leadership, came under examination after a deadly attack on a U.S. Diplomatic short article in Benghazi, Libya, eliminated U.S. Ambassador Christopher Stevens and three rather on September 11, 2012. One independent panel issued a report around the Benghazi attack, which discovered "systematic failures and leadership and management deficiencies" at the State Department.

Health Issues

Clinton, who stated she took duty for security at the station in Benghazi, was reserved to testify about the attack before conference in December 2012. She canceled her booked testimony, however, citing a stomach virus and, later, a concussion the she experienced after fainting (the cause of i m sorry was later reported together dehydration). Some members that Congress doubted the time of her illnesses, consisting of Representative Allen West, who proclaimed that he thought the secretary of state was experiencing from "a situation of Benghazi flu" on the work she was scheduled to testify.

On December 30, 2012, Clinton was hospitalized through a blood clot pertained to the concussion the she had actually suffered earlier in the month. She was released indigenous a brand-new York hospital on January 2, 2013, after ~ receiving treatment, and also soon recovered and returned to work.

Benghazi Testimony and also Resignation

Clinton testified about the Benghazi attack on January 23, 2013. Speak to members the the House foreign Relations Committee, she safeguarded her actions when taking complete responsibility because that the incident, i beg your pardon killed four American citizens. "As I have said countless times since September 11, ns take responsibility, and nobody is much more committed to obtaining this right," she told the House. She added, "I am figured out to leaving the State Department and also our nation safer, stronger and an ext secure."

After taking office in 2009, she repeatedly proclaimed that she was just interested in offer one term together secretary the state. She stepped down from her article on February 1, 2013.

In may 2014, the House select Committee top top Benghazi, chaired by Representative Trey Gowdy from southern Carolina, was produced to inspection the Benghazi attack. Clinton testified in former of the committee top top October 22, 2015, in a virtually 11-hour hearing. The House choose Committee on Benghazi approve its last report on June 28, 2016. The just over 800-page report discovered no new evidence the wrongdoing on her part, but was crucial of "government agencies favor the Defense Department, the main Intelligence company and the State room — and also the officials who led castle — because that failing to master the acute security risks in the Libyan city, and especially for preserving outposts in Benghazi that they might not protect," according to The brand-new York Times.

The democrats on the committee approve their own 339-page minority report that criticized Republicans for "one the the longest and also most partisan congressional investigations in history" that took 2 years come complete and also cost "$7 million in taxpayer funds." 

"We have been hampered in our job-related by the continuous Republican obsession through conspiracy theory that have no communication in reality," the minority report stated. "Rather than disapprove these conspiracy theory in the lack of evidence — or in the face of difficult facts — choose Committee Republicans embraced them and also turned them into a political crusade."

Mother-in-Law and Grandmother

In 2010, the Clintons' daughter Chelsea married previous Goldman Sachs invest banker and current hedge money manager Marc Mezvinksy.

On September 26, 2014, Clinton became a first-time grandmother as soon as daughter Chelsea gave birth come Charlotte Clinton Mezvinsky. Chelsea gave birth come her second child, Aidan Clinton Mezvinsky, ~ above June 18, 2016, and to child Jasper Clinton Mezvinsky ~ above July 22, 2019.

Bid because that 2016 Presidency

After much speculation and also assumptions over whether she would run because that the U.S. Presidency, Clinton's plans to be made official in the feather of 2015. ~ above April 12, her project chairperson man D. Podesta announced via email that the former secretary that state was entering the gyeongju to secure the autonomous presidential nomination because that the 2016 elections. This was automatically followed by one online campaign clip, with Clinton herself announcing that she was to run for president.

Campaign Issues

On her campaign site, Clinton handle a wide selection of issues: lowering college student debt, criminal justice reform, campaign finance reform, improving the healthcare coverage and also costs the the Affordable treatment Act (a.k.a. Obamacare), and also women's rights. 

However, the candidate was also known for her an altering stances on various hot switch issues, consisting of her evolving assistance of gay marriage and her souring on the Trans Pacific Partnership. In regard to the environment, Clinton had actually a setup to combat climate readjust but likewise faced inquiries from environmental activists for sustaining fracking. She also supported the fatality penalty but claimed it have to be imposed in exceptional cases.

Email Scandal

In at an early stage March 2015, Clinton challenged controversy and criticism once it was revealed that she had actually used her personal email deal with to manage official governmental organization during her time as secretary of state. In a news conference organized at the united Nations, speaking originally on gender equality and also the political case in Iran, Clinton stated that she had actually utilized her an individual email for convenience as allowed by state room protocol. She later turned over every governmental correspondence to the Obama management while deleting messages that can be understood as personal. 

In may 2016, the State room issued a statement concerning Clinton's continuous email scandal. The department criticized she for not seeking permission to usage a private email server and likewise stated it would certainly not have actually approved it if she had. The 79-page report, along with a different FBI investigation and other legal problem that affiliated her personal email account, exacerbated Clinton's controversial politics reputation and became fodder because that Republican officials.

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After a year-long FBI examination of Clinton’s email techniques while she to be secretary that state, FBI director James Comey announced top top July 5, 2016, that the agency would not recommend criminal charges versus Clinton. “Our referee is the no reasonable prosecutor would lug such a case,” Comey claimed at a news conference. He added: ”Although us did not find clear evidence that Secretary Clinton or she colleagues intended to violate laws governing the handling of the classified information, there is evidence that lock were exceptionally careless in their dealing with of really sensitive, highly classified information."

The adhering to day Attorney general Loretta Lynch exit a explain saying the she would certainly accept the FBI’s recommendation and also Clinton would certainly not be fee in the case. “Late this afternoon, ns met v FBI manager James Comey and career prosecutors and also agents who performed the examination of Secretary Hillary Clinton’s use of a personal email system during her time as Secretary that State,” Lynch wrote in the statement. “I received and accepted your unanimous recommendation that the thorough, year-long investigation be closed and also that no charges it is in brought against any people within the scope of the investigation.”

Clinton’s email troubles resurfaced on October 28, 2016, once Comey revealed in a letter to Congress that while investigating disgraced previous Congressman Anthony Weiner for messages he had sent to a 15-year-old girl, legislation enforcement public representative had found emails that appeared “to be pertinent” to the closed investigation of Clinton’s usage of a an individual email server. The emails were apparently sent by Huma Abedin, Weiner’s wife and also Clinton’s peak aide, come Clinton’s personal server, but the content of the emails to be unknown.

The time of Comey’s letter, just 11 days prior to the election, to be unprecedented and critics referred to as for the FBI to release an ext information. A bipartisan group of nearly one hundred former federal prosecutors and also Justice department officials additionally signed a letter criticizing Comey. “We can not recall a prior circumstances where a senior Justice Department official — Republican or Democrat — has, ~ above the night of a major election, approve a public statement whereby the just disclosure of info may affect the election’s outcome, however the main acknowledges the information to it is in examined might not be far-ranging or new,” the letter stated.